okładka nr 15


Jan Andreasik

Enterprise ontology according to Roman Ingarden’s theory of objects

In the paper, original ontology is defined. This ontology is based on the concept apparatus of theory of object proposed by Roman Ingarden - a Polish philosopher. In Section 2, the author presents a definition of individual object according to this theory. In this definition, the following concepts are included: essence, form, way of existence, constitutive nature, subject of properties, endowment of properties, properties, state of thing, relation. By analogy, the author defines one's own concepts of the enterprise ontology: enterprise essence, form of competence system, content of assessments, enterprise vision, enterprise competence system, competence assessment, assessment criteria, score trajectories, grammar of trajectories, enterprise condition, competence potential condition, competence gap condition, act of explanation. According to the presented enterprise ontology, there are created descriptions of cases in the intelligent system for recognition of enterprise condition designed on the basis of the CBR (Case-Based Reasoning) methodology.

Keywords: ontology, enterprise, Roman Ingarden’s formal ontology
JEL: A12, D8

Jarosław Bubiło

District territorial self-government in law-governed states

The article focuses on the role of the middle level administrative district (county) in traditional Polish administration. The author analyzes the history of the administrative district as a unit of territorial division of the country, stressing the history of the most recent reform, its controversies and accepted solutions. In particular, the author poses the question whether the recently introduced district self-government has solidified, and whether it has fulfilled the expectations of local societies. The article also considers the factors of consolidation of the administrative district, and the integrating function of history and tradition. At the same time, it points to the present state of consolidation, the weaknesses of administrative districts, and the existing, albeit untaken chances.

Keywords: administrative district, local government, decentralization, democratic legal state
JEL: H11, R58

Elżbieta Wojnicka

Regional diversification of grey area in Poland

In the article the methodology and estimation of the size of the informal economy in Poland is presented. The informal economy is measured as the not taxed with the personal income tax part of the people’s income. This part of the informal economy is estimated as the difference between the disposable income of households declared by them in the questionnaires and the income declared for tax purposes. The informal economy measured in this way is essentially diversified between Polish regions.

Keywords: informal economy, regional differences, taxes, incomes of people
JEL: R12, B41, D13, E01, H31

Bogdan Kawałko

A regional contract as the tool used for development support.
The experience of the lubelskie voivodeship

During the pre-accession period, within the scope of Poland’s preparations to join EU many changes and preparation activities were undertaken. One of the most important was adopting by the Seym in 2000 the Act on rules of supporting regional development that introduced a new instrument for supporting regional development, i.e. a voivodship contract. The said instrument was to be a main tool for executing regional strategies and preparing self-governments in managing structural funds on a regional level after Poland joining EU. Taking Lubelskie Voivodship as an example the article makes an attempt to analyse the contract’s influence on a region’s development and its role in developing awareness and experiences in independent development decisions of regional and local authorities. The article includes the analysis of using financial measures and obtained objective results within the period of 2001-2008 in compliance with directions of their allocation. The work specifies as well spatial distribution of the contract’s intervention per district (powiat) and commune (gmina).

The experience and achievements connected with implementation and functioning of the voivodship contract in years 2001-2008 in Lubelskie Voivodship identify three main dimensions, i.e: the first one – it should be perceived as an instrument of stimulating development of innovative character; the second one – as a pre-fund experience basis enabling practical understanding of „obtaining” funds for its own development in the way of contests and the third one – as not fully successful ultimate mechanism of financing different tasks. The voivodship contracts in current legal frames and in the system of their functioning as an instrument of supporting regional self-governments with the State budget measures for execution of projects being part of voivodship programmes on rules approved on the voivodship level should not be continued in the perspective 2009 plus. This instrument should be substituted with a new generation of „alliance for development” including experiences resulting out of implementing by voivodships Regional Operational Programmes and constructing a new algorithm of subsidies and rules of joining government, community and regional measures.

Keywords: regional government, regional development, regional contract, EU structural funds
JEL: R58

Robert Pater

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Employment and Unemployment in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship to 2013

During years 2003-2007 we observed the growth phase of the business cycle in Poland and the improvement of the labour market. This improvement was visible due to the growth of employment and decreasing of the unemployment rate, both in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship and the rest of Poland. Despite hard beginnings, the dynamics of employment have been continually rising. During this period the Polish labour market went through considerable changes. In 2008, for the first time since 2003, signals of worsening of the economic situation in Poland emerged. The article contains a synthesis of the latest situation of the regional labour market in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship and also an attempt to forecast this situation up to 2013. The main aim of the article is to create a reliable long-term prognosis, emphasizing the period during which a cyclical turning point will occur. Forecasting the economic situation during considerable changes is a difficult task, however. That is why a diagnosis of the situation is also required, especially an analysis of changing the dynamics of employment and unemployment. A few indicators which are able to show the dynamics of the labour market with lead are also analyzed. What is more, a forecast of GDP was made with the use of additive “cyclical factors” created on the same basis as seasonal factors. This forecast was used in the model as one of the predictors. The forecasting model was supplemented by an autoregressive part and harmonic variables of periodicity similar to the frequency of business cycles observed in the labour market.

Keywords: labour demand, business cycle, forecasting
JEL: J23, E32, E37

Andrzej Burda

Assessment Models for Predicting Economic Situation of Small and Medium Enterprises – Multicriteria Analysis

This paper proposes a way of evaluation of the models for predicting economic and financial situation of small and medium-sized enterprises. The advantages and disadvantages of the machine learning and statistical models were analyzed by using accepted criteria. It proposes the concept of optimization of heterogeneous predicting model.

Keywords: multicriteria analysis, economic situation, small and medium enterprises, machine learning, artificial neural networks
JEL: C45, G17

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak, Dawid Długosz

The assessment by small and medium entrepreneurs of the usefulness of tools used for the diagnosis and prognosis of the economic situation

The article presents the findings of a research survey concerning the use by the entrepreneurs the analysis of a local economic situation, and the use of tools allowing to predict the condition of one’s own company in comparison with other regional companies that are in the same business. A detailed statistical analysis of the collected data, as well as binary and ordered dependent variable models, which unable to evaluate the usefulness of the tools that have been described in the paper, are also presented.

Keywords: survey of small and medium entrepreneurs, tools for diagnosis and prognosis of economic situation, binary and ordered dependent variable models
JEL: C25, C83, D01

Full text of the articles available at: e-Publikacje Nauki Polskiej.