okładka nr 25


Zbigniew Henryk Borkowski

Method of investigation of marginality of rural areas

The present transformations of country areas lead to existence of phenomena triggering inner anomalies in spatial structure and regions' anormality. The variety of approaches to rural regions' issues result in dissimilarities in research methodologies conducted by different scientific disciplines and the obtained results cannot be compared. Hence trying to formulate an appropriate methodology seems essential. The research should be based on quantitative methods, among which nonlinear methods would be best to apply. The aim of this study is to describe ways of looking for such a method, it's presentation and preliminary assessment. A point of departure for the study is a statement that socio-economical marginality is formed by different spatial, economic, psychological and planning conditions. Satisfactory or unsatisfactory standard of living is an effect of their interactions. An analysis showed that existing reserves or an experience of happiness do not affect the feelings about the standard of living. It turned out that they in fact depend on human needs' satisfaction. In this case the term 'need' is used to denote something that is hard to do without and which is necessary for normal existence or for something to function. In turn, a thing is defined as anything that may be an object of sensual perception or anything that may be an object of judgement. Things are connected by relations consisting of subjects and objects of relations. The relations between its subject and object will be the criteria for a things' quality exerting an influence on satisfying human needs examination. Their evaluation allows to describe an appearance of a specific thing in the analysed area as indispensable, probable, superfluous or improbable. In the following part of the study the procedure of measurement of socio-economical marginality with the use of an analysis of relations between specific things' was described and then the manner of visualisation of the obtained results on a graph was shown. The distance between points A and B on a graph is a measure of a quality of a specific thing. The obtained result will help to make a decision on taking necessary protective or shaping actions in the thing. The method may be also applied in catastral evaluations.

Keywords: rural areas, marginality, needs, things, criteria for evaluation of things
JEL: C18, O18

Marta Głaz, Władysław Hasiński

Economic activity in rural areas as a determinant of peripherality

The aim of this article is to examine whether the rural areas of Lower Silesia is characterized by large disproportions in the level of entrepreneurship development, with particular emphasis on first-order location services (education, general stores) and service-oriented business operation. The analysis pointed to large disproportions in the level of development of entrepreneurship and stated that in order to determine the peripheral areas it seems reasonable to use indicators showing the level of entrepreneurship development of higher order.

Keywords: economic activity, peripheral areas, village Lower Silesian
JEL: O18

Paweł Pytka, Jolanta Rodzoś

People-place bonds in the context of the fenomenon of peripherality

Bond between man and place are shaped by many internal factors, depending on the man himself and external — depending on the characteristics of the environment. One likely location of the centers of development. This study examines the impact of peripherality on human feelings and attitudes of the inhabited space. The study was conducted in the Bieszczady Mountains, in the county and the Bieszczady Lesko, among junior high school students (age :15–16 years). The study showed that peripheral to some extent shapes the human relationship with the place. Correlations statistically significant at the level found in the following relationship indicators: identification of the village, identification with the region, assess the landscape, a sense of pride in the fact of living in the community and a sense of longing for a place in the event of his leaving. Diversity study of attitudes of young people from various peripheral zones of the local environment can be observed in many other situations. Students living in the depths of the Bieszczady Mountains appear to be more favorably evaluate their surroundings and feel towards him warmer affection than those who live in the area near centers of development.

Keywords: place attachment, sense of place, place identity, peripherality, Bieszczady region, corelation coefficient
JEL: Z13

Michał Jasiulewicz

Marginalization problems of former State Agricultural Farms area
in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship

The paper is devoted to the marginalization problems of former state Agricultural Farms area of West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The paper is devoted to the analysis of marginalization in the areas of Stale Agricultural Farms domination in the frost. As a indicators of the degree of marginalization three characteristics have been taken into the consideration: a) unemployment in the years 2006–2008, b) average salarys in the districts of the analized area, c) new constructions of residential buildings.

Keywords: rural areas former states agricultural farms, marginalisation, transformation
JEL: O18

Waldemar Gostomczyk

The possibilities of using biomass energy in the activation of rural areas

The article describes the consequences of restructuring the state sector, the state of agriculture in Polish and North West. Despite the fact that from its beginning it has been 20 years, its effects are visible until now. In areas where the dominant state ownership, there remains a high unemployment rate, low rate of activation, the significant dependence of people on social assistance. More often than in other areas of the phenomenon of marginalization and social exclusion. Long-term actions taken by the institutional social actors do not bring the expected results. The article proposes the use of labor resources and land from these areas in obtaining biomass energy and its local land use. This direction should be considered as one of the factors activating rural areas, and formation of the new functions of agriculture.

Keywords: labor market, joblessness, structural transformations, market of biomass, activation socially-economic
JEL: Q42

Jacek Dobrowolski, Andrzej Łepecki, Łukasz Łepecki

Proposed organization of agricultural biomass processing system
in the Lublin Voivodeship

Agricultural biomass, defined as qualitatively different stream of organic matter derived directly or indirectly from agricultural crops, is functioning both in science and media. So far, scientific publications and journalists articles do not translate into actual operation of concrete plants in the region. Now is the time to discuss and prepare suitable model system for processing biomass. The authors describe in this article, their proposal for a comprehensive organization of the collection, processing and supply of agricultural biomass taking into account: needs of energy industry, agrarian structure of Lubelskie voivodeship and crop diversity. The main component of the possible flow of agricultural biomass to be processed for the power sector is the straw of cereals but hay which is quite underestimated is an abundant in the region. Because of the wide variation in types of raw material and fragmentation of agricultural holdings a special system for collecting, processing and transporting biofuels should be prepare. The basic organizational unit should be relatively small processing plant cooperating with all the farmers eager to sell their biomass. This unit should also work as a buffer magazine for biomass and compressed (ready to transport) biofuels. To ensure the coherence of the system, activities of all the processing plants are subjected to the control of one body. Implementing the described solutions guarantees: employment for several hundred people, unification of produced biofuels according to quality and physical features, uniformity of supply chain, eliminating health and safety problems associated with the organization of work of agricultural equipment and ease to extend the system in case of increased demand.

Keywords: agricultural biomass, solid biofuels, agrobryquette, lubelskie voivodeship
JEL: Q42, L23

Monika Wesołowska

Migrations of population and the results in peripheral regions
(on the example of Lublin Voivodeship)

In the article, migration movement in Lublin Voivodeship was presented. Due to the location, the area of the province was treated as a peripheral region. Some consequences of migrations, seen both in social and economic sphere, were also emphasized.

Keywords: Lublin Voivodeship, migration, peripheral region
JEL: J61

Małgorzata Flaga, Krzysztof Łoboda

Demographic situation of Lublin Polesie
as a result and factor of marginalization of the region

The following study is an assessment of the most important population-related processes that take place in Lublin Polesie since the end of the second world war. The author’s special attention is concentrated on one short period – the first decade of the years 2000. The leading aim of the work is to show that present demographic changes in Polesie are results of long-lasting unfavourable processes in the region. Besides, some crucial consequences of the population changes, which may have influence on future, prospective activation of the Polesie areas are indicated as well. On the grounds of analysis of statistical data, changes of the population growth are shown as well as natural increase and migration. They are examined in total interpretation and in a section of urban and rural population. As an important feature of demographic situation, some unfavourable modifications in the demographic structure are also emphasized. Additionally, the work presents a spatial differentiation of population processes in Polesie, that can be observed in towns and land counties.

Keywords: Lublin Polesie, depopulation, emigration, economic backwardness
JEL: J11

Tomasz Podciborski, Jacek Kil

Spatial order of peripheral areas in aspects of partition

This study presents a method to assess the effects of arrangements resulting from the preliminary project of property subdivision performed during the property subdivision survey on the spatial order status in non-urbanized areas. The paper also demonstrates practical applications of the method developed.

Keywords: spatial order, distribution, countryside
JEL: R14

Gabriela Czapiewska

Village renewal as an opportunity for development
of peripheral rural areas of the Pomeranian Region

Possibility of taking advantage of European funds has influenced for changes in many sectors of agriculture and rural areas. One of most important qualitative change on Polish villages is change of their spatial physiognomy. Rural renewal is the method of development of rural areas. This method is supported by European Union aid programs. The sustainable development of rural areas is not possible without direct and wide participation the occupants of villages. The article presents how the Pomerania region used European Union aid programs for rural renewal and how communes were activated to invest. It focused mostly on the examples of rural renewal realization of the project called “Village renewal and the preservation and protection of the cultural heritage”. Currently, the rural renewal program is its continuation called “Renewal and Development of Rural Areas” (Rural Development Operational Program 2007–1013). It the special attention was paid to activities about social infrastructure implemented in peripheral rural areas of the Pomeranian Voivodship in the frame of Pomeranian Village Renewal Programme.

Keywords: rural areas, peripheral areas, rural areas development, village renewal, renewal programmes
JEL: R10

Arkadiusz Świadek, Katarzyna Szopik-Depczyńska

Economic cycle and innovative activity of enterprises in Polish regions —
probit models

In the paper the results of the analysis of impact of economic cycle on the innovative activity of enterprises in Polish regions were presented. Firms from dolnośląski, mazowiecki, śląski and zachodniopomorski region in years 2007–2010 were investigated. For evaluation of relations between different indicators of innovative activity and the independent variable which was one of the phase of economic cycle (expansion, slowdown, downturn) one factor probit model was applied.

Keywords: innovation, economic cycle, industry, region
JEL: O18, O31, R12, R58