okładka nr 26


Karina Bedrunka

Effective implementation of the Cohesion Policy: programming experiences in previous periods of Opolskie Voivodeship and a new vision for Cohesion Policy after 2013

The article raises that in discussing the future of the Cohesion Policy, an important argument is the effective use of EU funds by Poland from the previous programming periods, i.e., 2004–2006 and 2007–2013. The financial and material results obtained in the Opolskie voievodeship within the Integrated Regional Operational Programme for 2007–2013, and the Regional Operational Programme for the Opolskie voivodeship 2007–2013 have been analysed. It has been proven that, under both programmes, the region achieved significant successes, such as: within the RPO WO 2007–2013 in the competition for additional funds from the National Performance Reserve took the first place. This demonstrates the effectiveness of regional absorption. Effectiveness of this type should be recognized in the implementation system based on efficiency. The article attempts to prove that it is a sufficient argument, for the next programming period, to maintain, among others, the Cohesion Policy and the instrument of National Implementation Provisions.

Keywords: cohesion policy, EU funds, effectiveness, evaluation
JEL: H71, O29

Mariusz Zieliński, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska

Change on regional labor markets in Poland in years 2006–2009

The article concerns changes taking place in the regional labor market in Poland under the influence of the economic crisis. Statistical analysis is based on data published by GUS and includes: employment and unemployment change levels in years 2006–2009 in Poland, and the sector level and the structure of employment in regional labor markets. On the basis of statistical data regarding employment, the regions were determined which were distinguished positively in view of the whole country, in terms of processes advancement of employment structure changes in the direction specific for the post-industrial period. This confirms the thesis that more developed and diversified regions, according to economic base, cope better in the conditions of an economic crisis. In consequence, this leads to situation deterioration of differentiation in regional labor markets.

Keywords: regional labor market, structure of employment, unemployment, post-industrial period

Romuald Jończy, Diana Rokita-Poskart

Changes in employment in Poland and abroad
among rural population of Opolskie Voivodship in 2008 and 2010

The existence of considerable gaps in knowledge on employment and international migration, as well as the effects and determinants of the phenomena, became the primary reason for conducting the research on international migration in the Opolskie voivodeship. Apart from the important information about the state of employment, the key issue seemed to be changes in migration that was observed during the recent period in the Opolskie voievodeship. The changes which have occurred due to the macroeconomic situation, such as the economic crisis in Europe and changes in the labor market, determine the profitability of a job abroad. The article presents the results of the research that indicated some positive trends in employment in the country and abroad in the period 2008–2010. Firstly, it shows a significant drop on the scale of emigration in the past two years and a contemporary increase in employment in the country of the Opolskie voivodeships’ inhabitants. On the other hand, the research shows a decrease in the number of people who are economically inactive. Changes in employment were not similar in the various population groups — the most pronounced differences in the change in employment abroad have been associated with the groups of citizenship.

Keywords: migration, rural areas, employment

Sabina Kubiciel-Lodzińska

Employment of foreigners in the Opole Voivodeship
as a consequence of changes following at the regional labour market.
Current state and perspectives

The labour market of the Opolskie voivodeship is changing. It is connected with emigration from the region, more noticeable dualisation of the labour market and progressive changes in the education community. The consequence of these changes are structural deficiencies in the labour force. And that is why, in the Opolskie voivodeship, growing interest in the employment of foreigners is seen. So, in this case, it was decided to conduct a study which covered employers and foreign workers. The aim was to encompass the factors determining the employment of foreigners in the opolskie voivodeship. According to the dual labour market theory of M. Piore, the respondents were divided into groups representing the primary labour market ("better" work) and the secondary labour market ("worse" work). The study showed that the use of foreign labour in certain sectors (industry and construction) and occupations is a necessity due to the lack of native workers ready to take up employment. Moreover, the foreigners who take up employment in the Opolskie voivodeship have chosen the region because of the demands made by local employers. The study also showed that the majority of employers in the secondary labour market through the employment of aliens keeps employment and production stable.

Keywords: labour market, foreigner, paid immigration, primary and secondary labour market, Opole Voivodeship
JEL: J21

Andrzej Graczyk

Taking into account the effects in field of improvement
of quality environment in opinion of efficiency of undertakings

The analysis of effects and the range of opinion derived from different efficiency areas while considering, at the same time, the environment’s quality improvement. The range of defining the effects is introduced in the first part. The second part discusses the areas of occurrence of opinion of efficiency (technical efficiency, energy, financial, economic). The third part concerns the problem of qualifying ecological efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, evaluation, effects, wildlife conservation
JEL: Q51

Małgorzata Joanna Bielecka

Regional and local development by territorial partnership

In this paper, we present the territorial partnership issue and its influence on regional and local development. Partnerships are territorial unions of subjects from the public, non-government and the private sector. By this kind of cooperation, it is possible to use the level of social activity to mobilize local and regional resources for economic and social development. It was necessary to present a few crucial concepts of partnership. Attention has also been drawn from regional and local politics and the increase of a region’s role in the global economy. To show how important the territorial partnership’s influence is on a region and its social development, selected examples have been presented.

Keywords: regional and local development, territorial partnership, sustainable development, Twin Towns
JEL: O43

Alicja M. Graczyk

Support mechanisms of sustainable energy development in Prusice community

The purpose of this article is to identify the overarching and strategic goals of sustainable energy development and to propose and analyse the mechanisms helping the implementation of this development in the Prusice community. At the beginning, the concept of sustainable energy development is defined. The first and second part includes the characteristics of the test area: the Prusice community. The third part presents the objectives and principles of sustainable energy development. The fourth part is a proposal and analysis of support mechanisms for a sustainable energy economy in the community.

Keywords: sustainable energy development, Prusice community, support mechanisms
JEL: Q56

Maria Kola-Bezka

Changes in the innovation activities of enterprises
in the Kujawsko-pomorskie during the global economic crisis

The aim of this paper is to indicate the effects of the global economic crisis on the innovation activity of industrial enterprises, including SMEs, in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship. To identify those effects, statistical data for years 2005-2009 was used for analysis: expenditures on innovation activities of enterprises; the percentage of enterprises that made expenditures on innovation activities; the percentage of enterprises that have introduced innovations; the share of sold production of new/significantly improved products in total sales value; the share of net revenues from innovative products in net revenues from the total sale; the percentage of enterprises that cooperated in the field of innovation; investment in R+D of enterprises; and the number of people associated with R+D in enterprises. The results of the analysis indicate that in 2005–2009 the intensity of innovation activity of enterprises in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship significantly decreased. It may be one of the main barriers to the development of the region in the coming years.

Keywords: world economic crisis, innovative activity of enterprises, Kujawsko-pomorskie Voivodeship
JEL: R11

Justyna Zygmunt, Łukasz Mach

Spatial order of peripheral areas in aspects of partition

The article includes the issues connected with community investment expenditures and their significant importance in local development creation. The theoretical assumptions concentrate on the investment-expenditures’ essence, and, also related, the problem of expenditures in question usage as a measure of local development. The main purpose of the empirical analysis was to present the diversity of investment expenditures, both in the static and dynamic dimension way, as well on the multidimensional comparative analysis level. The static analysis results were the basis to diagnose the expenditures shaping in the respective communities in the Kędzierzyn-Koźle district. It also created the grounds for a dynamic analysis realization. The main goal of this part of the research was to identify the dynamics of changes in investment expenditures as the base which enables expenditures in question approximation for future periods. The empirical research completion was made by forming the multidimensional-communities’ rating concerning investment expenditures.

Keywords: community investment expenditures, local development, variation of investment expenditures, cluster analysis
JEL: C38, H54, H72, R11

Aleksandra Zygmunt, Mirosława Szewczyk

Perspectives of Construction section in Opolskie Voivodeship

Section “Construction” includes the complete construction of buildings (division 41), the complete construction of civil engineering works (division 42), as well as specialised construction activities, if carried out only as a part of the construction process (division 43). The main purposes of the study are: (1) the identification of changes in “Construction” which have occurred in the region, (2) the analysis of the section in the Opolskie voivodeship with the use of financial ratios of enterprises, (3) the identification of prospects for the section. The study uses data from the Central Statistic Office and Monitor Polski B. The empirical analysis is based on the location quotient. Moreover, the comparison of the financial situation of analysed enterprises using liquidity and indebtedness ratios was made.

Keywords: construction section, Opolskie voivodeship, the location quotient, liquidity and indebtedness ratios
JEL: R11, R13

Katarzyna Tracz-Krupa

The practice of training of local administration in Opole Voivodeship —
the research findings

The article deals with the issue of training the local administration in the Opolskie voivodeship. The main goal of the paper was to diagnose and evaluate training of self- administration officials and to indicate possible ways of improvements. The empirical part was conducted amongst 451 officials at different levels of self-administration in the Opolskie voivodeship.

Keywords: self-government administration, training, human resources management, self-government offices
JEL: J24

Adam Roznoch

Opportunities and risks of Polish Presidency of the European Union
from the perspective of French Presidency experience

The Polish presidency of the European Union has aroused a lot of ambitions and expectations from society, which sees opportunities to create and promote a positive image of Poland as a modern, dynamic country, engaged in the affairs of European integration and actively participating in solving current problems of the European community. Some are even convinced that the presidency will strengthen the position of Poland in the EU and worldwide. Looking from the perspective of the French Presidency experience, which has achieved many successes in this field, the author attempts to assess the opportunities and threats for the Polish presidency, bringing critical analysis of external factors, the priorities selected and the process of its preparation. Also presented are proposals for supporting the priorities of the Polish presidency, as well as some urgent problems to solve resulting from the challenges facing the European Union and Poland, today; including, in particular, the common agricultural policy, cohesion policy as well as territorial, economic and social competitiveness. The current Common Agricultural Policy has many imperfections and is a long way from the purposes it was originally intended.. The current direct payments to farmers in member countries are too varied and discriminate against farmers in the newly joined EU member states, especially in Poland, distorting the adopted principles of competitiveness. Consequently, it is an insufficiently implemented European cohesion policy. Even with the the absorption of considerable financial outlays, the outcome is the deepening of social, economic and territorial inequalities in particular regions and EU member states. The EU budget program for 2014–2020 assumes a substantial increase in expenditure on building competitiveness at the expense of cohesion among the regions of convergence, which will not encourage sustainable economic and social development in the EU, and especially in Poland. Poland does not duly use the EU subsidies for R & D, which, in this area, is a net contributor to the European budget. The consolidation of these trends, especially under conditions of the continuous overseas outflow of highly skilled human capital, is a huge threat to building a modern, innovative economy in Poland, disqualifying us for a long time in the rankings of European and global innovation. These and other threats to the Polish and European economy, in the context of a deepening monetary and economic crisis, should constitute the major challenges for the Polish presidency. Meanwhile, the program adopted by the presidency in this regard is too shallow and un-ambitious. Anxieties exist because the Polish presidency does not meet society’s expectations.

Keywords: Polish Presidency, French Presidency, Lisbon Treaty, Europe 2020, EU budget programmed for 2014–2020, Common Agricultural Policy, European Cohesion Policy, EU energy security, European Marshall Plan
JEL: J24

Jan Pomierny

System changes in state condition of evolution of region and citizens

The state requires a thorough reform. It should be developed with public participation, and needs to implement a program to repair its public finances. We must end political reign and introduce substantive personnel management; thereby disbanding the present responsibility-collective of individuals holding senior positions in the state. Continued borrowing is a serious threat to national sovereignty. Poland will exceed 800 billion zł in public debt in 2011. Public management requires competent people with the necessary education, experience and achievements in economic practice. Management algorithms enable the application of the fundamental elements of operational and strategic planning, schedules, tasks, management contracts, agreements in trade and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tasks. Another important issue is to present up to date, accurate and responsible information about the state of the economy and government finances.

Keywords: state, system, democracy, public finance, region, discrict, growth, development, management, strategy
JEL: H60

Małgorzata Adamska

Selected aspects of innovation capital management
in small and medium enterprises on example of Opolskie Voivodeship

The article presents some aspects of innovation capital management from the perspective of research on the state of innovation and awareness of pro-innovation in the sector of small and medium enterprises of the Opolskie voivodeship. The research was conducted due to the need of a Regional Innovation Strategy for the Opolskie voivodeship. The evaluation of selected aspects of innovation capital was made by comparing the results obtained in 2007 on behalf of the Academic Business Incubator of the Technology University of Opole, and in 2009 at the request of Opole Centre for Economic Development. Both of the studies were performed with a comparable research sample.

Keywords: intellectual capital, innovation, innovation capital

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak, Dawid Długosz, Mariusz Poninkiewicz

Economic sentiment changes in the Lubelskie Voivodeship
in the 3rd quarter 2011

In the paper are the results of the 42nd quarterly economic sentiment survey in the Lubelskie voivodeship conducted by the University of Management and Administration in Zamość: using a survey sample size of 485 enterprises and 500 households. The survey’s data shows the economic sentiment index for the Lubelskie voivodeship for the 3rd quarter, 2011, has a value of minus 13 (range from minus 100 to plus 100 points) and decreased by 14 points compared to the previous quarter, going back to the lowest level during 2009 recession. It means that the recovery from the recession has a W-shape. But the entrepreneurs and consumers forecast an improvement in the 4th quarter. And this means that in the 3rd quarter, 2011, economic sentiment and the economy in the Lubelskie voivodeship reached “the second doldrums”.

Keywords: Economic sentiment surveys, Lubelskie Voivodeship
JEL: C83, R2, R3