okładka nr 29


Kazimierz Górka, Paulina Szyja

Regional Policy of the European Union
Versus Sustainable Development

The authors begin with the statement that Western Europe, as in the USA, commenced activities aimed at overcoming financial and economic crisis with the bailing out of financial and banking institutions while neglecting stimulation of real economic policy. Nonetheless, the strategic plan of the European Union called ‘Europe 2020’ points out that ensuring lasting economic growth and social development are prerequisite. In the subsequent parts of the article the authors present an evaluation of the importance of regional policy for economic stimulation of the EU. To this end the authors analyze the EU budgetary expenditures on cohesion policy and the impact those expenditures make on sustainable development; they also present some methods of transforming the European economy into a low emission (green) model.

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Keywords: regional policy, sustainable development, low emission model, EU budgetary expenditures
JEL: R11, R58

Sławomir Dorocki

Regional Differentiation in the Development of French Towns —
Quantitative Analysis

The 20th and 21st centuries are the periods of urbanization. In 2008, for the first time the world’s urban population exceeded 50%. This process is driven mainly by technological, economic and social changes. In the case of Europe, “metropolitan Europe” has already become a commonly used name. However, the question arises as to whether the processes of urbanization take place with the same intensity throughout Europe and if there are any regional differences in these changes. This paper attempts to present regional differences in the development of cities in France. As an indicator of development the changes of city population have been adopted. The analysis was based on the number of urban population in France in the years 1965–2007. The analysis of these changes was carried out in relation to various administrative units: regions, departments, units and urban agglomerations (unité urbaine). After analising the changes of the degree of urbanization of regions an attempt was made to create a model of urban development in various regions of France and, on this basis, forecast their future growth. Finally, selected indicators of socio-economic changes have been compared with the rate of urban population changes. This has been aimed at verifying the influence of individual factors on contemporary processes of urbanization.

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Keywords: France, cities, urbanization

Jan Andreasik

Ontology of Offers

In the paper, the ontology of individual object and interpretation of it in the area of offers of goods and services is presented and reconstructed by the author. The ontology is defined on the basis of Roman Ingarden’s formal ontology, in particular on the basis of the theory of individual object.

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Keywords: ontology of offers, theory of individual object, Ingarden
JEL: A12, D8

Krzysztof Grabczuk

The European Social Fund and Popularizing Lifelong Learning
and Vocational Education in the Lubelskie Voivodship

The accession of Poland to the European Union created both new opportunities and tasks for many entities. This article presents the analysis of the use of the European funds from the European Social Fund for vocational education (9.2 Improvement of the quality and attractiveness of vocational training) and lifelong learning (9.3 Popularizing formal lifelong learning in school forms). These two measures have been selected by the author because expending these funds on the above mentioned tasks in the current financial perspective of 2007–2012 is one of the most difficult. The SWOT analysis conducted in Poland 2006, i.e. just after implementing the Operational Programme of the European Social Fund, indicated the following: (1) low quality and attractiveness of vocational education system, (2) low popularity of cooperation between employers and schools, (3) weak system of educational-vocational consultancy, (4) weak connections between curriculums and labour market, and (5) low rate of participation of adults in lifelong learning. According to numerous researches, the vocational educational system is at a much lower level than the general education system, and therefore there is not so much interest in it. On the other hand, there is a big demand for graduates of vocational schools on the labour market. The European funds are a chance to improve the quality and attractiveness of vocational education and its promotion. It is also a chance to introduce innovative forms of teaching, equip schools with modern didactic materials, and provide additional entrepreneurship and foreign languages classes. In a modern market economy and with an incredibly fast rate of civilization development, society has to permanently upgrade qualifications and skills to catch up with changing technologies. The modern knowledge-based economy and technological race mean that employers need employees who are better educated. Their knowledge, skills and creativity will have a significant influence on the competitiveness of companies, regions and states.

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Keywords: European Social Fund, lifelong learning, vocational education
JEL: R11

Mieczysław Kowerski

Demographic Determinants of the Changes in the Student Population
of the Lubelskie Voivodship

Demographic processes are one of the fundamental factors determining the number of students. This article presents the analysis of the demographic processes’ influence on the current and future number of students in the Lubelskie Voivodship — a region of the NUTS 2 level, located in eastern Poland, bordering on Byelorussia and Ukraine. We used the auto-regression model to produce the forecast which indicates that through the year 2035 we will be experiencing drastic, permanent decline in the numbers of Polish students in the Lubelskie Voivodship, caused by the predicted significant decrease in the number of high school pupils.

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Keywords: student population in Lubelskie Voivodship, forecast through 2035
JEL: J11, J24

ózef Bergier, Barbara Bergier

Fewer Domestic Tourists Visit the Lubelskie Voivodship

Mapping out a strategy for the development of tourism requires systematic observance of the changes over longer and shorter periods of time. An analysis of the gathered data on domestic tourists visiting the Lubelskie Voivodship in the years 2001–2010 concerned: the number of tourists, the purposes of the visits, the accommodation, and the seasonal choice of the visits. The analysis that was made shows an unfavorable view of domestic tourism in the Lubelskie Voivodship in terms of the number of tourists, the accommodation and the purposes of the visits. The only favorable premise is the increasing percentage of tourists visiting the region in the winter. The ongoing discussion on the proper strategy for the Lubelskie Voivodship for the following years thus should be adjusted to reflect its assets for tourism.

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Keywords: domestic tourism, the Lublin region, current tendencies
JEL: R11, L83

Sławomir Dziaduch

Development Potential of Cities in the Lubelskie Voivodship

The goal of the article was the analysis of the development potential of cities in the Lubelskie Voivodship based on endogenous factors. As a main research method the analytical hierarchy process was used. The method solves decision-making problems presented in the form of multi-criteria hierarchical structure. The weights of elements in each level of the hierarchy were obtained as a result of pair-wise comparisons of components constituting development potential. The development potential based on endogenous factors was divided into 5 components: human and social capital, standard of living, economic potential, the local government activity and tourism potential. In terms of development potential Lublin was at first place. The largest city in the region had the best synthetic indices in terms of human and social capital, standard of living and economic potential. The city with the best local government activity was Janów Lubelski, and the highest level of tourism was noted in Kazimierz Dolny. The development potential of cities indicated considerable diversification in groups of administrative functions (cities with powiat status, powiat cities and other cities) as well as territorial division. The lowest development potential was in cities located in the southeast part of the voivodship: Tyszowce, Łaszczów, Szczebrzeszyn, Józefów and also Annopol, Kock and Rejowiec Fabryczny. They were characterized by low transport accessibility, as well as demographic and social problems.

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Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, endogenous growth, regional development, cities in Lubelskie Voivodship, decision-making process
JEL: R11, O18

Andrzej Burda, Paweł Cudek, Zdzisław S. Hippe

ProfileSEEKER — Early Warning System for Predicting Economic Situation
of Small and Medium Enterprises

This paper presents the construction of the ProfileSEEKER – the information system for early warning small and medium-sized enterprises from bankruptcy. The developed system is a set of five classifiers, using a variety of topologies of artificial neural net-works and Bayes belief network, supported by supervised machine learning methods. System performance was evaluated using the original validation, called queue validation procedure.

Keywords: predicting economic situation SMEs, artificial neural networks, machine learning, queue validation
JEL: C45, L25

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak, Dawid Długosz, Mariusz Poninkiewicz

Economic Sentiment Changes in the Lubelskie Voivodeship
in the 2nd Quarter of 2012