okładka nr 30


Roman Rudnicki, Robert Hoffmann

Structural Pensions as an Instrument of Modernisation
of Polish Agriculture: An Assessment

The article offers a spatial analysis of structural pensions, one of the measures of the Rural Development Programme (RDP) intended to improve the agrarian and demographic structure of agriculture. The analysis rests on the list of 65.5 thous. structural pensions as of mid-2010, made public by the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (AR&MA). They were subjected to the procedure of aggregation into commune-based units (number of pensions, their average amount, and share in the total number of agricultural holdings), and compared against spatial differences in the average area of an individually held farm. The analysis closes with an assessment of how structural pensions affected the size structure of farms in the years 2002–2010 (a regional approach relying on agricultural censuses) and with conclusions that can be drawn on this basis as to the effect of this EU Common Agricultural Policy instrument on the agrarian structure of Polish farming.

Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy, structural pensions, agrarian structure, agriculture, Poland
JEL: Q18

Roman Kulikowski

Productivity and Commercialization of Polish Agriculture

Studies of the spatial aspect of productivity and commercialization of Polish agriculture go back quite far in time. In the period 1971–1990 the Institute of Geography of the Polish Academy of Sciences co-ordinated the research conducted in the framework of the national research programmes, and brought about numerous publications in which the productive features of farming in Poland were analyzed. (R. Szczęsny 1975, 1992, R. Kulikowski, J. Szyrmer 1978, J. Szyrmer 1976, 1977, 1980, R. Kulikowski 1977, 1977b, 1980, 1982, 2002, 2003). In the first part of the paper one can find the analysis of land and labour productivity. High levels of land productivity (value of gross agricultural production per 1 hectare of agricultural land) were observed in Greater Poland and Cuiavia featuring average or advantageous soil conditions and high farming culture (high share of population with more than primary education, employed in agriculture). Low levels of this indicator were noted in northern and western Poland. High levels of labour productivity (value of gross agricultural production per 1 person employed in agriculture) were associated mainly with a large size of farms and were observed in western and northern Poland. The subsequent part of the paper is devoted to the problems of degree and level of commercial production of agriculture. The studies of degree of commercialisation of agriculture (% share of commercial production in gross production value) shows its differentiation across the country since the year 1970. In the year 2009 the average degree of commercialization of Polish agriculture amounted to 70,5% and its indicators varied from about 74–76% in the northern voivodships, with larger farm acreage, to less than 60% in the south-east. The value of commercial production of agriculture per 1 hectare of agricultural land is referred to as the level of commercialization. The spatial differentiation of this indicator of Polish agriculture was illustrated for the years 1970 and 2002.

Keywords: Polish agriculture, land productivity, labour productivity, degree of commercializatoin, level of commercial production

Marcin Sobota, Bartosz Jawecki, Katarzyna Tokarczyk-Dorociak

Legal Aspects of Administrative Boundary Changes in Communities

The paper presents issues related to the legal aspects of administrative procedure of changes to the boundaries of communities. An analysis of legal provisions regulating this process, point to the many uncertainties of interpretation which may occur in practice. The authors have characterized the municipality as a subject of public and private law, whose independence is protected by the courts. The authors in particular draw attention to issues of public consultation undertaken during the procedural changes for the boundaries of cities, including a local referendum. Based on the views of doctrine, the judgments of the Supreme Court and Constitutional Court rulings made legal interpretation of the provisions for compliance with the Polish Constitution under the rule of law requiring uniform application of law throughout the country.

Keywords: municipality, city, changes in local government units, local referendum
JEL: K23

Barbara Sobolewska-Węgrzyn

Changes of Economic Activity of the Rural Population 2001–2011

Important changes took place in rural areas as a result of economic transformation and access of the state to the European Union. The position of the rural population in the labor market has changed. The character of these changes can be determined by analyzing economic activity of the population in different temporal profiles. In the paper economic activity of the population of rural areas in 2001 and 2011 was compared. The study contains the population aged 15 and over. Categories of employed and unemployed persons composing together the labor resources and economically inactive persons were took into consideration. In the first part of the paper economic activity of the urban and rural population was compared by using, activity of employment and unemployment rates among other methods. Analysis showed that differences between economic activity of the urban and rural populations visible in the 1990s are practically non-existent today. A comparison of economic activity of the rural population in 2001 and 2011 shows that participation of economically active persons was diminished and economical inactivity increased. Amongst the economically active population the percentage of employed persons increased. Socio-economic features of employed persons have changed. We can see an increase in the level of education of employed rural inhabitants. Amongst employed persons the percentage of the population not connected with agriculture has decreased, but in industry and services it has increased. In relation to this, employment status has changed. Participation of the self-employed has diminished but participation of employees and employers has increased. However, changes in the labor supply are not accompanied by changes in demand for labor. Stimulation of local markets, mainly by enterprise development, is indispensable.

Keywords: economical activity of the population, the rural population, development of rural area, labor market

Sylwia Staszewska

Urban Transformations of Rural Settlement Units of Suburban Areas

This paper contains the proposal for research on the spatial aspects of urbanization. It extends research in the field of urban morphology, which at the level of geographical research is the basis for understanding the spatial structure of urban units. The work consists of three parts. The first reviews the literature concerning methods and range of research on the settlement units of suburban areas. The works of sociologists, geographers, architects and urban planners were analyzed by looking for urban and analytical as well as urban and methodological points of view. In the second part attempts were made to place the proposed research issue in the current of urbanization research. The last, third part presents the original scheme of research on urban transformations of space including rural settlements.

Keywords: urban transformations, suburban area

André Riesner, Grzegorz Olejniczak, Józef Hernik

Assessment of Spatial Processes in Structurally Underdeveloped
Rural Municipalities in Germany

Processes of rural development require different actions and perspective planning support. This refers both to changes in the environment, as well as the processes of economic transformation or reducing the effects of demographic changes in rural areas in Germany. What is more, the basis of any planning process system is a balance between individual interests, ie, balancing the businesses of different actors. In order to develop the spatial planning at the local level in an appropriate way, plans should be described and assessed especially with regard to their efficiency, effectiveness, and their future impacts. This is served by a number of proven methods and indicators. In the article there are current approaches which aim to describe and evaluate the processes of spatial development in structurally weak rural areas in Germany. Starting from the systematic process for rural development in the Federal Republic of Germany presented are the basic theoretical and methodological approach to the collection and evaluation of individual processes at the local level of planning and administration. Next, current approaches to assessment of spatial development are presented, based on indicators. Particular emphasis was placed on the use of different assessment methods and the use of indicators. Moreover, the usefulness of these procedures of describing and evaluating rural development at the local level are presented.

Keywords: rural areas, Germany, spatial planning, assessment, indicators

Krystian Heffner, Brygida Klemens

Living Conditions and Social-Economic Activity of the Rural Population
(Example of Opole Voivodship)

The article is an attempt to assess a dependence between living conditions and socio-cultural and economic activity of the rural population in Opole Voivodship (Region) on the level of rural local administrative units. One may suppose that rural areas with high economic, social and cultural activity of population are likewise characterised by higher quality of life. An assumption that rural areas with a high activity level are represented by active local governments in even European as well as regional and local development initiatives was verified. The Regional Government of Opole Voivodship is implementing many initiatives aimed at social and entrepreneurship activation in rural areas (i.e., Villager Regeneration [Odnowa Wsi], Opole Region Rarities [Opolskie Specjały], LEADER Program, Opole Region Renewable Energy [Energia Odnawialna Opolszczyzny]) leading to significant improvement of quality of life for the rural population. Such actions at least partly may simplify the basis of the economic differentiation of the local social function and serve to strengthen regional and local bonds and identity.

Keywords: socio-cultural activity, living conditions, rural areas, development initiatives
JEL: I31, R13, R58

Julia Gorzelany-Plesińska

The Application of Customer Perspective Indicators in the Management
of Rural Communes

A commune performs specific functions defined by the law and included in the act on local self-government. It fulfils public tasks, acts on its own behalf and at its own cost. Commune management is a very difficult and complex task. However, it needs to be remembered that the fundamental objective of all communes is to meet the needs of its inhabitants. P. Drucker stated that the only right objective of an enterprise is “a satisfied customer”. For a commune, inhabitants are the customers. It is very often the case that commune authorities do not realize the important role of local inhabitants in the area’s development. In fact, all activities performed by the commune should be aimed at satisfying the needs of local inhabitants. The Balanced Scorecard is a management tool combining long and short-term goals, financial and non-financial indicators in order to measure effectiveness of performed activities. One of the four perspectives applied in this method is the customer perspective. Main performance indicators from the point of view of the customer include the following: satisfaction, customer retention, gaining new customers, profitability, product attributes, relationships with customers and reputation. The article refers these indicators to a rural commune and based on empirical analysis attempts to create a model of how these indicators could be used and what should be changed. In the conclusion, the articles points out areas for change.

Keywords: rural communes, customer satisfaction, indicators
JEL: D73, H83

Wioletta Kałamucka, Krzysztof Kałamucki, Anna Kamińska, Marta Filipek

Changes of Land Use in Lublin and Its Vicinity in the Last 40 Years

Urban areas and suburban areas are characterized by large dynamics of changes in land use. At the expense of agricultural land, and sometimes also forests, the share of built-up areas for residential, industrial, service and transport purposes is increased. Lublin is a city in which this process in recent years has become considerably stronger. The significant change of land use, and consequently the transformation of rural landscapes located in its vicinity, is the result. This paper deals with capturing the changes of land use in the city and suburban area in the last 40 years in a spatial (cartographic) and statistical approach. The basis of the analysis were the topographical maps at the scale of 1:10 000 from the 1970s and 1990s, and aerial photos at the scale of 1:13 000 from 2009, in respect of which the size and dynamics of changes have been specified. The largest changes in land use structure have been found in relation to arable land (loss of more than 8,6%), intensive densely built-up area (increase of 2,4%) and low density built-up area (increase of 5%). The communities Jastków, Konopnica, Wólka, Głusk have been areas of the greatest changes. Qualitative changes have been also examined.

Keywords: land use, suburban area, spatial analysis, cartographic presentations, Lublin
JEL: R14, R52

Magdalena Warmińska, Aneta Dąbrowska, Wacław Mozolewski

Regional Products as a Promotion Tool of Tourism in Rural Areas
of Pomeranian Voivodship

Manufacturers and producers of regional products have very high capacity to take advantage of the existing market niche as far as the growing interest in food quality is concerned. It is a global trend and Polish producers have a huge opportunity here. The only need is to have a good promotion policy, and the consent and agreement among the producers and manufacturers of regional products. On the one hand, regional products can be a major tourist attraction and also a great way to promote rural development. On the other hand, thanks to the growth of tourism, it is possible to preserve traditional production methods even though they may not be very profitable. Tourists eagerly buy these products and treat it as a kind of proof of a visit in a particular place or country. Moreover, they evoke holiday memories, emotions, and the flavors of the countryside. Rural areas of Pomerania, which are culturally diversified with a rich tradition in history, are a great treasury of cultural resources. The aim of the presented study is to verify the hypothesis that regional product is a tool to promote tourism in rural areas of the voivodship.

Keywords: regional products, promotion, rural areas
JEL: R1, L83

Magdalena Gorzelany-Dziadkowiec

The Influence of Innovative and Operational Processes
on Rural Area Development (Exemplified by the Commune of Michałowice)

In the age of information and knowledge, development and progress in many areas depends on the ability to combine best innovative practices with theoretical ideas. This is particularly visible in organization management. A commune is an organization with a specific objective; commune management is a difficult and very complex task. Recent developments of information technologies and environmental changeability force organizations to implement innovation. It is worth remembering here that innovations should be regarded with respect to three areas: product, technology and management. The aim of the article is to present the importance of innovative and operational processes in organization development, including urban and rural communes. It characterizes product innovations that could be implemented by a commune; particular attention has been drawn to technological innovations (including the creation of ICT systems). Another research area focuses on innovative management (changing management styles, reformulating procedures, mindset change). Research has been conducted in the commune of Michałowice. The final part points out conclusions and recommendations for commune authorities with regards to innovative and operational processes.

Keywords: rural area development, innovative process, operational process
JEL: O18

Waldemar A. Gorzym-Wilkowski

Spatial Planning Versus Conflicts Concerning Shale Gas Extraction

The search for shale gas in Poland raises hope for improvement in Poland’s energy situation. However, it also causes conflicts, especially with the inhabitants of the areas where the gas deposits are to be exploited, who are afraid living conditions will deteriorate. Various ways of expressing protest and resolving conflicts are looked for. However, it seems that spatial planning is the ground where such conflicts may be resolved in the simplest way and at the same time the most effectively, because shale gas extraction activities have to be in complian-ce with the planning documents of communes. Therefore, the possibility of gas extraction and the extraction area are dependant on the decision of the commune local authorities, represen-ting the best interests of inhabitants. Besides, the way the local planning documents are drawn up gives inhabitants numerous opportunities to formulate and enforce the fulfilment of their expectations. Financial compensation for the persons whose real property has declined in market or use value as a result of the approval of the local plan is also a part of the planning system. Therefore spatial planning allows the interests of various parties to be balanced and, in consequence, reduction of the number and scale of the conflicts over shale gas extraction.

Keywords: shale gas, space planning, conflicts, Poland