cover vol 11 no 1


Anna Golejewska

Human Capital and Regional Growth Perspective

(article in English)
Accumulation of human capital is one of the major determinants of economic growth. In the last decades, theoretical and empirical literature has analysed this issue at regional level, providing interesting results. The analysis focuses on 35 regions of the Visegrad Group (NUTS 2 level) in 2002–2009 and is based on Eurostat Regional Statistics. The objective was to compare competitiveness and human capital intensity in the Visegrad Group regions, verify the existence of correlation and thus potential human capital growth effects. The analysis comprised two groups of indicators: measures of competitive position and human capital education indicators, as measures of competitive ability. The results showed that there have been and continue to be substantial differences among the regions as regards competitiveness and human capital. According to the correlation results, one can suppose — following the research assumptions — that human capital could have positive impact on regional competitiveness in the Visegrad countries in 2002–2009. However, one cannot forget that the relation between wealth and human capital can be reverse. Level of wealth and structure of the regional/local economy could affect the level and quality of human capital. Regardless of this, in the case of Visegrad Group regions, further econometrical research is still needed.

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Keywords: regional competitiveness, human capital, Central and Eastern European Countriesd
JEL: R11, J24, P25

Roman Rudnicki, Ewa Kacprzak, Anna Dubownik

Regional Differences in the Absorption of Financial Support
by Agricultural Holdings and Changes in the Level of Agriculture in Poland
in the Years 2004–2009

(article in English)
The article offers an analysis of the volume of financial support absorbed by agricultural holdings in Poland against the background of changes in the level of farming during the country’s EU membership (the years 2004–2009). The transfer of EUR 21 billion of assistance contributed to the development of Polish farming to a limited extent only. This was largely due to the structure of the funds being unfavourable from the point of view of the development of agriculture, in particular because of a large proportion of passive forms of EU support (area payments). Of no little importance was also the fact that some of the operational measures were intended to improve the natural environment and put farms on a non-agricultural development path rather than bring about an increase in the production level and competitiveness of agriculture.

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Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy, financial support of agricultural holdings, development of agriculture, Poland
JEL: R51

Dorota Raczkiewicz, Marta Dolecka

The Educational and Professional Careers of Women in Poland

(article in English)
Both women and men in their lives have at least two careers: educational and professional. These careers can differ according to gender. The aim of this paper is to analyze educational and professional career differences between men and women using some macro indicators to correlate these two career indicators, as well as to investigate the diversity of the indicators among regions in Poland and other European Union countries, and to establish the position of Poland within the EU with respect to these indicators.

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Keywords: educational career, professional career, women
JEL: I24, J16

Wiesława Gierańczyk, Wieńczysław Gierańczyk

Spatial Diversity of Tourist Infrastructure in Poland
in View of the OECD and EUROSTAT Typology of Rural Areas

The paper raises the issue of spatial differentiation of tourist infrastructure measured by the potential of tourist accommodation (Charvát index — Tch) and the intensity of tourist traffic (Schneider index — Ts). This issue is presented in two spatial approaches — according to the typology of the OECD and that of EUROSTAT. The analysis shows that, in relation to the whole of Poland, the regions of a predominantly rural (PW) character have a much lower saturation with accommodation base (Tch). According to the OECD methodology the Tch index in such areas is nine times lower, while according to EUROSTAT three times lower than in predominantly urban areas. This phenomenon is more intense in the view of the first typology due to the specific criteria for delimiting areas of predominantly urban character. Also, the intensity of tourist traffic (Ts) by both typologies is twice lower in predominantly rural areas. This is due to a different nature of preferences and behavior of tourists. Rural areas are dominated by various forms of leisure tourism, while in cities tourist stays for a significantly shorter time. However, predominantly rural regions are not internally consistent. The best-developed tourist accommodation base (Tch) is located in the areas of the top tourist attractions — at the seaside and in the mountains. Also it is there where the highest intensity of tourist traffic (Ts) is recorded. The least-developed accommodation infrastructure as well as lowest tourist interest were recorded for the predominantly rural regions of Mazovia and Eastern Poland. Although trends of diversification of tourist infrastructure in the PW areas delimited by different methods are similar, they may not be a reference for each other. As all the coastal regions and the regions of the Masurian Lake District are not, according to the Eurostat classification, PW areas, the differences in the values of the indexes representing the state of their accommodation base and their attractiveness to tourists are significant. Therefore, only the internal differentiation of an area classified by one of the methods can be subjected to comparison.

Keywords: OECD and EUROSTAT regional typology, Urban-rural typology for the regions of NUTS 3, Predominantly rural regions, Charvat's indicator, Schneider's indicator
JEL: O18

Mieczysław Kowerski

The Economic Sentiment Index as a Tool of Estimation of
the Growth Rate of GDP in Regions. An Example of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
GDP per capita is one of the basic criteria for granting European funding to particular regions. However, in Poland the Central Statistical Office calculates the GDP value in regions with a two-year delay. Therefore, it is important to create tools which, with greater accuracy, would make it possible to estimate the growth rate of GDP in regions much earlier than the publications of the Central Statistical Office. In the article, in order to estimate the growth rate of GDP in regions, the autoregressive model is put forward, in which the voivodship entrepreneur’s economic sentiment index is used as one independent variable. The sentiment index is calculated on the basis of a survey, and its value is already known a month after the end of the year, which makes it possible to bring forward the estimation of the growth rate of GDP. Using the proposed model, the growth rate of GDP in the Lubelskie Voivodship in the years 2011–2012 was estimated.

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Keywords: estimation of the growth rate of GDP, economic sentiment index, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: E3, R11

Iwona M. Batyk

Diversification and Divestments of Agricultural Farms
in Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship

(article in English)
Diversification of the agricultural production structure and the use of farm land, capital and labor to conduct activities other than agriculture is a sign of entrepreneurial activity among farmers. The main objective of diversification is a more efficient use of farm resources, not only in agricultural activities, but also to a large extent in non-agricultural activities. The aim of the study is to determine the scale of farm diversification and regional diversification, and an indication of the non-agricultural activities. This article presents the results of the studies carried out on farms engaged in agro-tourism in the regions of Warmia and Mazury. The aim of the study was to identify the motives behind tourism activities and to understand why farms divest.

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Keywords: diversification, divestments, agrotourism
JEL: R12

Wiesław Romanowicz, Józef Bergier, Dorota Tomczyszyn

Age as a Differential Factor of the Activity of Disabled People
in the Rural Areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The authors present financial aspects of the lives of the disabled living in the Lubelskie Voivodship in the context of age. All the data included are a result of empirical studies conducted in the rural areas. From the presented findings it ensues that the younger the age category of the respondents, the stronger the sense of the material wealth and higher economic status. The above attitudes are a result of better adaptation of the youth to the realities of everyday life and diversified sources of income. Taking this into consideration, it needs to be said that despite major economic problems the rural disabled face, we can observe systematic change in the awareness of this social group.

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Keywords: disability, age, financial situation, rural environment
JEL: I14

Beata Płoszaj-Witkowska, Sandra Rusek

Development and Promotion of Rural Areas Based on a Concept of a Garden
for the Disabled

This article presents a concept of a garden arrangement for meeting the needs of the disabled from the Social Support Centre in Zakrzewo. The concept assumes the creation of green places suitable for spending free time. The concept consists of the particular organs which symbolise the particular senses. Each of the organs is located in a separate section of the garden. The design of these sections stimulate the particular senses. The main property of the arrangement was to create a safe and calm place for the disabled to learn in safety and comfort as well as to spend their free time.

Keywords: the disabled, gardens, senses, Social Support Centre in Zakrzewo
JEL: I20

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak, Dawid Długosz, Mariusz Poninkiewicz, Andrzej Salej

Economic Sentiment Changes in the Lubelskie Voivodeship
in the 3rd Quarter of 2012

Ryszard Orłowski

Review of M. Kozaczka's Gospodarka Polski w latach 1989–2009

Mieczysław Kowerski

Review of T. Palmowski's Kaliningrad — szansa czy zagrożenie
dla Europy Bałtyckiej. Monografia społeczno-gospodarcza

Konrad Walczyk

„Badania koniunktury — zwierciadło gospodarki” (conference account)