cover vol 11 no 3


Mária Uramová, Ján Kollár, Miroslava Tuschlová

The Current Status of Self-Governing Regions in Slovakia
with Potential Prospects for Future Development

(article in English)
The paper deals with the evaluation of the development of public administration in Slovakia, focusing on the analysis of self-governing regions. Based on the assessment of the current state of self-governing units it emphasizes the need for the formation of quality of regional policy. When evaluating the level of governing regions, we use several indicators. We focus on the financial, institutional and informational indicators. For the comparison, we use a rating of total transparency, which contributes to a more comprehensive view of the self-governing regions.

Keywords: public administration, self-governing region, regional policy
JEL: H83, O2, R58

Vladimír Hiadlovský, Lenka Hvolková

Economic Structure of Slovak Regions as a Significant Tool of
Their Potential Development

(article in English)
In order to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, the European Union has set a spectrum of targets via the growth strategy titled Europe 2020. These targets are elaborated in detail and coordinated in specific national programs and national policies of European Union member states. A detailed analysis of economic structure that influences the situation in a particular region in an outstanding way can be considered a significant activity for the purpose of examination of the current situation and potential development of particular European regions. Research on stronger and weaker economic areas provides the state with important information for decisions on further strategic development of a particular region. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the economic structure of the Slovak Republic and its regions with the help of secondary data. On the basis of this analysis we will determine the possible areas of potential development for specific economic areas in Slovak regions.

Keywords: economic structure, the regions of Slovak Republic, development of regions
JEL: O11

Sabina Kubiciel-Lodzińska

Regional Immigration Policy as a Tool for the Stimulation of
Socio-Economic Development (with a Focus on Opolskie Voivodship)

Is it possible to create immigration policy at the regional level? To date, migration policies have been analyzed at the European or national level. However, it is possible this issue should also be worked out at the regional level. This is connected with the specific nature of certain areas, such as the Opolskie Voivodship, in which international migration has become an important element of socio-economic development. The consequence of migration of residents of the region may become an influx of foreigners. It can be believed that, in view of the ongoing discussion in the Opolskie Voivodship of depopulation and the creation of remedial mechanisms, it would be worthwhile to consider developing policies related to the influx of foreigners in the region. It seems that the Opolskie Voivodship in the development of an individual, regional immigration policy could be a pioneer and create a "good practice" for other regions, as well as measures that could be implemented throughout the entire country. The purpose of this article is to show the influx of foreigners in Poland and Opolskie Voivodship, which can be regarded as a consequence of emigration of Poles observed in the country and the region, and to identify possible opportunities to benefit from the presence of foreigners.

Keywords: foreigner, regional development, migration policy, Opole Voivodship
JEL: R11, K37

Kazimierz Szczygielski

Ethnic Picture of Poland after the National Census of Population
and Housing 2011. Ethnic Differentiation as a Potential Factor of
Regional Growth

The 2011 National Census of population and housing was the second census (after the 2002 census) in which the national and ethnic composition of Poland was examined. The new census methodology and order of questions resulted in data that are not yet sufficiently precise. Generally, the number of people declaring non-Polish origins significantly increased, mostly because of very large increases in the Silesian and Kashubian population. According to the new census methodology, new possibilities of data interpretation occurred, mainly as two groups (which are distinct language groups as well) such as: Silesian-Polish, German-Polish, Kashub-Polish met each other at the affiliation point. At the moment analyses of the demographic structures of selected national groups and their localization in Poland are conducted at the level of individual districts (counties). The course of those researches is connected to aspects which include recognition of spatial development conditions in consideration of the demographic differentiation of distinguished subpopulations.

Keywords: national minorities, ethnical minorities, German minority, regional politics
JEL: J1, O1

Mieczysław Kowerski

Youth Unemployment in the European Union

In this paper the Hodrick-Prescott filter method is used to calculate trends of the unemployment rates in the years 2000–2013 in European Union countries. In the last 5 years the high increase of the level and the unemployment rates was observed in most EU countries. This increase was higher among youth than older people. An especially high increase is observed among young people with a low level of education. The changes in unemployment among young people in Poland are compared to Austria — the country with the lowest rate of unemployment and Greece — the country with the highest rate of unemployment were analyzed in detail.

Keywords: European Union, unemployment rate, Hodrick-Prescott filter
JEL: E24, O57

Vladimír Hiadlovský, Petra Gundová

The Importance of Macroeconomic Analysis of Regions in the Slovak Republic
in the Context of Regional Development

(article in English)
In today’s rapidly changing world the representatives of the Slovak Republic's regions need exact macroeconomics analyses. We can even say that their importance is increasing. Why are there strong fluctuations in economic development? Why there are significant differences between regions of the Slovak Republic and what is the cause? If we want to know the answers, we must examine economic development of regions on more regular basis and in more detail. The importance of autonomous macroeconomic analysis of Slovak regions is that it is the source for identifying strengths and weaknesses of these regions. The aim of this article is to show the importance of macroeconomic analysis of Slovak regions in the context of regional development. The introduction of the article presents the theoretical apparatus of macroeconomic analysis. In the second part of the paper we present results of macroeconomic analysis of eight regions of the Slovak Republic; we focus on the level of regional GDP, foreign direct investment and the economic activity rate of the population.

Keywords: macroeconomic analysis, regional GDP, foreign direct investment, economic activity rate
JEL: E6, R58

Vladimír Hiadlovský, Ivana Šidová

Changes in Business Structure as a Factor Reflecting
the Development of the Region

(article in English)
The improvement and acceleration of the development of regions in the European Union is the key issue of many EU documents. Presently the Strategy Europe 2020 is considered the most important document. According to it, the development of regions contributes to intelligent growth, which is one of the EU priorities. One of the factors which directly reflects the development of a region is the business structure and its changes. The business structure in Slovak regions has changed under the influence of the economic crisis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the business structure in Slovak regions and to assess whether these changes have contributed to the development of the region. The data used in the analysis were mainly obtained from the Slovak Statistics Office and other relevant sources.

Keywords: business structure, development of the region, Strategy Europe 2020, economic crises
JEL: L11, L25

Przemysław Sekuła

Effectiveness of Management of Linear Infrastructure Projects

The role of the technical infrastructure, and in particular linear infrastructure is appreciated both by the European Union and Poland. This involves considerable expenditure on the creation and expansion of an infrastructure. So it is reasonable to question the effectiveness of infrastructure project management. This paper presents the results of research into the effectiveness of project management, especially the effectiveness of management of the budget, scope and time of projects. According to the results, both the management of the project budget and scope management has been found to be effective. What cannot be positively evaluated is the effectiveness of time management in the studied projects. The research was a part of a larger study whose aim is to develop recommendations for the management of linear infrastructure projects in Poland.

Keywords: infrastructure, management, project, Poland
JEL: H83, O22

Dorota Rynio

Alternative Sources of Financing Investments in Polish Regions
in the Years 2014–2020

In worldwide economic crisis conditions, EU fiscal policy programming for years 2014–2020 found it necessary to apply new financial instruments. In Polish regions investment needs are still huge, which determines long-term development of the investment market. There are insufficient resources for continuing the investing process on such a huge scale. That is why regions must use some innovative financial market instruments. At present the subsidy policy of the EU is insufficient. In the years 2014–2020 new instruments connected with a revolving market will be developed. The effect of the changes will be to improve the rationality of EU expenditures and the possibility of continuing the investment process.

Keywords: programming period 2014-2020, region, subsidy policy, financing of investment process, instruments of revolving market

Brygida Solga

Return Migrations in Opolskie Voivodship — Their Character and Importance
for the Development of the Region

In Opolskie Voivodship — the area that is exposed to permanent foreign migrations and put at risk of losing its stable development — the implementation of actions that are meant to enable the return of migrants can be treated as one of the indispensable bundles of activities that minimalize the effects of adverse demographical tendencies. The convenience of returns may become an important factor that provide a way to benefit from the potential of re-migrants, only if it is constant and consistent. Although, recently, the role of a utilitarian approach to re-migration becomes more important, it seems that todays migrants can count, at most, on pieces of information concerning the situation of the country, or receive some signals that returning is a reasonable solution. The policy lacks broad and more specific actions that refer to economic and social matters. On one hand, their prospective aim is to use the potential of re-migrants (their financial capital, experience, qualifications, and contacts), and on the other — support that is focused on people having adaptation problems after returning from foreign countries.

Keywords: return mirgations, Opolskie Voivodship, providing support to re-migrants
JEL: F22, O15, R23

Beata Skubiak

Creative and Cultural Potential as an Element of Specialization of
Underdeveloped Regions

The purpose of this paper is to present the cultural and creative capital that in the case of underdeveloped areas may become important development factors and elements of regional specialization. To achieve the goal of the paper different research methods have been used, including secondary data: literature studies of the works as well as magazines and other publications, statistical analysis, reasoning and synthesis for the overall study. The statement based on the analyses is that the sector of culture and creativity that booms at local and regional levels has strategic capacities for combining creativity and innovation in order to boost local economies, to initiate new forms of activity, to create new and sustainable jobs, to bring positive impact on other sectors and increase the attractiveness of cities and regions. The creative and cultural sector is a catalyst for structural change in a number of industrial as well as rural areas and can lead to "rejuvenation" of their economies and influence the public perception of these regions. Cultural and creative capital is an important factor of economic and social innovation, and also helps to start the development process. Culture plays an important role in the structure of the population and is an important element for personal growth and development.

Keywords: intelligent specialization strategy, cultural capital, creative capital
JEL: R11, R19

Elżbieta Karaś

Results of Surveys on Support for the Development of Entrepreneurship
among Students of the Technical University of Opole

Academic entrepreneurship means every kind of involvement in business of research institutions, academics, students and graduate students. Possibilities for the development of academic entrepreneurship undoubtedly depend on the identification and perception of this phenomenon in academia. This article is the result of research conducted in 2012 among students and presents an analysis of the problem in terms of support programs operating at the Technical University of Opole.

Keywords: academic entrepreneurship, support programs
JEL: M13

Justyna Zygmunt

Company Innovation and Regional Development.
The Case of Opolskie Voivodship

The main objective of this paper was to identify and verify the relation between company innovation and development of the region, on the basis of the Opolskie Voivodship. The article consists of two parts: theoretical and empirical. The essence of the theoretical part was to consider the importance of innovation in regional development. The empirical part includes the results of the research on the relationship between innovation of firms from Opole region and Opole region development.

Keywords: firms innovation, regional development, Opolskie Voivodship
JEL: M13

Wojciech Najda

The Media as a Region Integration Factor

Zdzisław Szymański

Review of M. Kłuska's
Państwowy Bank Rolny w latach 1919–1949. Studium historyczno-prawne


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