cover vol 11 no 4


Elżbieta Wojnicka-Sycz

The Territorial Growth Pole Model as a System of
Development Factors on the Example of Poland

(article in English)
Growth pole strategies have been undertaken in the world since the 1960s with mixed results. In the article a complex approach to this phenomenon is proposed and tested for Poland. The territorial growth pole is considered to be based on a system of developmental factors forming natural, financial, physical, intellectual, socio-economic and administrative types of capital that create suitable conditions for location of innovative branches and the positive externalities connected with them. Areas affluent in developmental factors forming the above forms of capital have the best results both in terms of GDP dynamics and its level.

Keywords: growth poles, developmental factors, innovative branches, regional development, economic growth
JEL: R11, R15, O18, O30, O40

Lyudmyla Lebedyeva, Nataliya Poluektova

Development of an Information Society as a Tool
for Improving the Competitiveness of the National Economy

(article in English)
In modern conditions, competition increases not only at the level of individual enterprises but also at the level of regions, countries and groups of countries. The problems of competitive states are insufficiently studied. This paper focuses on the problems of search tools to enhance national competitiveness through the analysis of the factors of information society development. The work consisted in identifying factors of informatization that have not been taken into calculating the indices of competitiveness in the data of the World Economic Forum. Next, the correlation coefficients between the identified factors of informatization and the main indices of competitiveness were calculated. This reveals the most significant dependencies and provides a basis for recommendations for the use of these instruments for some countries. As an example the main directions of improving competitiveness by improving factors for informatization of Ukraine and Poland were formulated.

Keywords: competitiveness, national economy, informatization
JEL: C1, O3, R0

Dagmara Kociuba

Polish-Ukrainian Cooperation in the Scope of Spatial Planning

(article in English)
The following paper summarises Polish experience related to current cross-border cooperation in the scope of spatial planning. The first part presents the legal basis of cross-border cooperation and strategic-planning documents developed so far. The second part focuses on cooperation with the Ukrainian side, both at the level of state administration and working groups developing elaborations for both parts of the border region. It includes a detailed description of the development of one of them — the map of investment projects of the Polish part of the Polish-Ukrainian border region. It presents the scope of works, manner of preparing the maps and the text, and results of the works.

Keywords: cross-border cooperation, spatial planning, planning documents, Polish-Ukrainian border region, Poland

Volodymyr Herych

Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Common Problems and Local Solutions

(article in English)
This year we have managed to implement a joint international project aimed at including the best Carpathian wooden tserkvas of the Polish-Ukrainian borderland in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Each of the 16 objects has its own problems which are illustrated on the example of the Tserkva of the Holy Trinity. Its rich history, the urban context, the environment and the period of the building erection, its design and equipment, cultural and religious backgrounds are the basis of today’s work on the UNESCO object. Legal, state and local regulations create some opportunities for its preservation and best use. A very important element of the church maintenance is monitoring which should be provided by heritage protection authorities. All mentioned steps should provide, in particular, the popularization of the object, development of tourism and growth of the attractiveness of town or village. Each church can be a place of stimulating investment and development of the local economy, as well as basis for creating projects regionally significant.

Keywords: Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathians, UNESCO World Heritage List, Tserkva of the Holy Trinity, Polish-Ukrainian borderland
JEL: Z18

Marta Dolecka, Dorota Raczkiewicz

Comparative Analysis of Labor Force Resources in Poland
According to the 2011 Population Census and Labor Force Survey

(article in English)
This paper is aimed to analyze the size of the labor force in Poland, according to the 2011 Population Census and Labor Force Survey at the same time. These data are not consistent, an attempt is made to determine the size and causes of this inconsistency. The number of economically active and working people, as well as two relative measures: activity and employment rates were analyzed. A test of significance of differences between two parameters was used in comparisons. The absolute and relative differences between the same data from two sources were also calculated. All results were considered in total and by gender, age, level of education and place of residence divided into urban and rural areas, and by voivodships.

Keywords: labor force resources, population census, labor force survey
JEL: J21

Janusz Skwarek, Andrzej Łygas

Innovative Economy and Adult Education

(article in English)
This paper concerns important issues connected with adult continuing education in the context of innovative activity in a modern economy. The progress of civilization in the world leads to the creation of new goals and objectives in the entire system of education, and in particular in adult education. Education and the professional training of workers are closely connected with the development of companies and enterprises. Innovative activities contribute to the development of new technological and organizational solutions and to their popularization, creating and storing knowledge and abilities. The main elements in the sphere of the creation and popularization of innovation are: academic and applied sciences, companies, business environments, government institutions, corporations and international organizations.

Keywords: continuing education, innovation, economy
JEL: I25, O3

Elżbieta Skąpska

Services in Eastern Poland

(article in English)
The development differences in particular regions and sub-regions of the Polish economy have given rise to a need for progress in the scope of services, especially in Eastern Poland, which includes the following voivodships: lubelskie, podkarpackie, podlaskie, świętokrzyskie and warmińsko-mazurskie. The assumed aim of the study is identification of macroeconomic determinants of service sector development, which simultaneously constitute reinforcement of the economic potential of Eastern Poland. It is worth highlighting at least one of the signs of quality transformations in an economic service sector connected with creating new services for business — known as ‘shared services’. The development of outsourcing services will first of all result in producing new jobs, improvement of living standards and increase in wealth of the above-mentioned regional economy.

Keywords: service sector, development in Eastern Poland
JEL: A11, L80, O11

Mariusz Andreasik

Building a Project Portfolio in a Social Enterprise.
Analysis and Implementation of Project Selection Methods

(article in English)
The research which is described in the article aimed to help the social enterprise — SIFE Salford in creating a portfolio of projects. The paper focuses on a selection method that the organization may use while choosing among the projects submitted by external enterprises. This process is very complex and it is often difficult to make sound decisions, therefore introducing the methods and the process is essential and beneficial for every organization. The author examines two methods: the scoring and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). An analysis of those methods is made to decide which one is more suitable and useful for the organization under study. Furthermore, the methods are analyzed and studied as to how they can be applied and used in social enterprises. The survey and interviews with experts from the field aim to create guidelines for SIFE Salford, how to use the techniques and benefit from them. Consequently, the President and Directors of the enterprise are trained during the interview process to use the studied methods so that they can be easily implemented in the upcoming academic year. This condenses the aim of the research, which is to experiment among the selection methods that could be a practical tool for a social enterprise to ease the process of selection. It also introduces the concept of project portfolio management within this sector.

Keywords: balanced portfolio management, social enterprise, Analytic Hierarchical Process, project selection
JEL: M13

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak

The Influence of Business Cycle on the Forecast of
Household Financial Situation

(article in English)
The paper presents the results of the analysis of relationships between the forecasts of household financial situation and quarterly growth of GDP. The research uses ordered dependent variable models (assuming three values: forecasted worsening, no changes, improvement) related to the GDP growth rate and selected control variables. In our calculations we used the quarterly results of economic sentiment surveys in Lubelskie Voivodship conducted from 2nd quarter of 2006 to 3rd quarter of 2012.

Keywords: economic sentiment survey, forecast of household financial situation, GDP growth rate, logit ordered dependent variable model
JEL: C5, D1, E3

Małgorzata Joanna Bielecka

The Concept of Cross-Border Development
on the Example of Euroregions in Poland

(article in English)
The paper presents the issue of cross-border cooperation on the example of the functioning of euroregions in Poland. This issue was taken up in connection with the vital importance of international cooperation and euroregional cooperation for local and regional development. Euroregions, which cover almost the entire Polish border area, offer extensive opportunities connected with regional and local development, and foster the development of cooperation in matters of great importance for local and regional communities. Cooperation under the initiative of regional and local communities will decide in future not only about the shape of cross-border cooperation, but also about relations between states, in the united Europe of the 21st century.

Keywords: cross-border cooperation, development, euroregions, Polands

Waldemar A. Gorzym-Wilkowski

Lublin Metropolitan Area in Terms of Spatial Planning

(article in English)
The metropolitan area in Polish literature is generally understood as a large city with its functionally related vicinity. The Lublin Metropolitan Area (LOM) was identified in 2011 as one among 10 such areas in Poland by the government’s country spatial development concept. The concept envisages that metropolitan areas are to be supported, first of all, to improve their competitiveness, by governmental investment projects and the improvement in the functioning of public institutions. Spatial planning for Lubelskie voivodship, on the other hand, declares the need to shape LOM through numerous investment, protective, institutional and organizational activities. However, governmental and voivodship spatial planning has limited possibilities to implement its determinations. Especially the implementation of determinations concerning organizational and institutional solutions and, to a certain extent, also investment projects remains to a large degree beyond the competences of spatial planning entities. As a result, spatial planning, being the main plane of interest in the functioning of LOM on the pary of public authorities, may effectively impact the development and directions in transformations of this area only to a small degree.

Keywords: metropolitan areas, Lublin Metropolitan Area, Lublin, Lubelskie Voivodship, spatial planning
JEL: H76, R58