cover vol. 12 no. 1

Abstracts

Piotr Witkowski

Cross-Border Cooperation Between the European Union
and Neighbouring Countries. Practical Facilitations
in the Form of Local Border Traffic

(article in English)
Cross-border cooperation includes a broad range of contacts between representatives and institutions of national authorities, universities, educational, cultural and sport associations, economic entities, non-governmental organizations and communities living in the territories situated on both sides of the border. Restrictions and border barriers, which hamper the possibilities of cross-border movement of persons and goods, are detriments to implementation of this form of international cooperation. Community rules of local border traffic (LBT) are the facilitations of this cooperation. It becomes possible with the signing of international agreements between the Member States of the European Union and what are known as ‘third party’ countries neighbouring with them. This prospect is fully confirmed by the Polish-Ukrainian local border traffic agreement. Due to its implementation, recovery in cross-border relations between these countries has been confirmed by statistical surveys.

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Keywords: local border traffic, European Union, cross-border cooperation
JEL: F5

Piotr Gradziuk

The Potential of Straw for Energy Purposes in Poland

(article in English)
The paper presents the results of studies aimed at determining the potential of the use of straw for energy in Poland. The results of this analysis have been presented in a dynamic approach for the years 1975–2011, and in a territorial (by voivodship) approach for the years 1999–2011. These studies demonstrate that since 1983 straw harvests have exceeded the requirements of agricultural production. During the years 1983–1990, the average surplus over agricultural consumption amounted to 4 971 thousand tons, and recently, during the years 2007–2011, already 15 190 thousand tons. The quantity of these surpluses varies greatly by region, as it depends on the structure of land tillage, crop structure, farm size, as well as the type of livestock and the manner of husbandry. The greatest potential for using straw for energy-related purposes was noted in the following voivodships: Wielkopolskie, Lubelskie, Zachodniopomorskie, and Kujawsko-Pomorskie.

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Keywords: straw for energy, renewable energy sources
JEL: Q42, Q47

Jan Andreasik

Ontology of Information about an Enterprise Found in Press Articles

(article in English)
In the paper the ontology of information about an enterprise (OIE ) is presented. The ontology helps to analyse the information about the examined enterprise. The aim of analysis is to isolate information about an enterprise found in business and financial press articles (news items ) in order to define the strategic position of the company. This information is “relative propriety” in the terminology of the Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden’s formal ontology. The author proposes the OIE ontology of information about an enterprise (company ) based on the theory of individual objects by Roman Ingarden. Analysis of information from press news will provide a method for automatic gathering of data on the current state of an enterprise.

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Keywords: ontology of information, OIE, Ingarden, press article
JEL: A12, D8

Andrzej Soroka, Anna Mazurek-Kusiak

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Opinion of Residents of
Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
This paper presents the opinions of residents of Lubelskie Voivodship on Corporate Social Responsibility of entrepreneurs operating within the Lublin region. The aim is to specify which actions performed by companies have the greatest influence on the perception of the company as being socially responsible as well as which factors determine the choice of employer. It has been shown that the most important activities that positively identify the employer as socially responsible are good treatment of employees, protection of the environment and provision of jobs in the local community. While choosing a new job, respondents take into consideration the honesty of the employer and the perspective for employee development through participation in training and courses. Also significant, however not as much as these, are: the company’s brand, environmental responsibility and a good corporate image. It has been shown that respondents from Lubelskie Voivodship have low awareness of ISO 26000 standards, which is related to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility.

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Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: J80

Rafał Warżała

Business Cycle Barometer as a Method of Economic Diagnosis and Forecasts
in the Case of Warmia and Mazury Region

(article in English)
The purpose of this article is to assess the possibility of using a business cycle barometer to measure both the current economic situation and short-term forecasts for a regional economy, on the example of the Warmia and Mazury. The basis of this assessment is the construction of regional business cycle barometer based on data obtained from the Regional Statistical Office in Olsztyn. A survey was conducted which showed that a regional business cycle barometer can be created using the official statistical data. It provides a way to assess the current economic situation and short-term prospects of its fluctuations. In comparison to business surveys made by other institutions, the business cycle barometer is more objective, because it consists of so-called hard economic data.

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Keywords: business cycle, business indicator, region, business survey, warmińsko-mazurskie
JEL: E32, R11

Piotr Maleszyk

The Determinants of Labour Demand in the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The aim of this study is to characterise labour demand in the Lubelskie region and some of its determinants. The first part briefly discusses the theoretical aspects of labour-demand, including its measurement methods and main determinants. The second part offers a statistical analysis of labour demand in the Lubelskie Voivodship against national trends. It proves that labour demand in the Lubelskie Voivodship demonstrates slower growth and a less growth-favourable structure, and that the chances to find work there are smaller than in the country as a whole. However, an analysis of the main determinants of labour demand conducted in the next part of the study suggests that lower labour-demand growth in comparison to the country as a whole can be more attributable to factors related to the product-market situation rather than excessive increase in wages. It was also indicated that an important reason for such disproportions might lie in the relatively high significance of rural areas and agriculture, and also in the weaker position of the region’s business sector compared to the country as a whole.

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Keywords: regional and local labour markets, labour demand, regional development
JEL: J23, R11

Barbara Gradziuk

The LEADER Programme as a Tool of Promoting Rural Development
(case study)

(article in English)
The paper presents the results of studies aimed at determining the role of the LEADER Programme in supporting development of rural areas. The analysis was performed on the basis of a case study of the Local Action Group (LAG) “Ziemia Zamojska”. We used data from the LAG Office and the information contained in its strategic documents. “Ziemia Zamojska” LAG has received a total of PLN 6064 thousand for the implementation of activities under Axis 4 LEADER, of which more than three-quarters is for Action 413 “Implementing Local Development Strategies.” A significant portion of these funds were earmarked for investment projects responding to the immediate needs of the population (community centres, playgrounds, computer rooms with Internet access), which entail greater involvement of local communities. Efficient and effective use of financial resources available to the beneficiaries in the area covered by the local development strategy has a positive impact on the development of such areas and the local community. The opportunities created by financing and independent project implementation improve the quality of life (e.g., through the development of infrastructure), and above all, help to build and strengthen social capital in rural areas.

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Keywords: rural areas, LEADER Programme, Local Action Group, Local Development Strategy
JEL: R11, R51

Anna Dudzińska, Dariusz Świerk, Marzena Jeleniewska, Piotr Urbański

Perception-Based Valuation of Landscape in the Area Around Lake Rusałka
in Poznań, Poland

(article in English)
The paper presents studies concerning perception -based analysis of landscape by means of the valuation method developed by Kazimierz Wejchert. This method consists in the scoring of landscape interiors of a given space. Evaluation concerned a recreation area located in the city centre around one of the best known water reservoirs in the city of Poznań. The experiment comprised investigations conducted by students of 6 specialisation groups, the field of study Horticulture, and lasted for 6 months. In that period students evaluated individual interiors of the study area. The aim of the analyses was to indicate differences in the perception of recreational landscape depending on different factors (specialisation within the field of study, gender, weather) as well as to potentially develop design guidelines for the management of recreational areas within the green wedges in the city of Poznań. Statistical analysis of the collected data facilitated formulation of more specific conclusions. Marked differences were found in the perception of landscape, depending on gender of respondents. The most attractive site was the area located immediately at the lake, while the ecotone zone, transition zone between ecosystems, proved to be least attractive. Slight differences were also found in the perception of landscape within the investigated specialisations within the field of study.

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Keywords: Poland, Poznań region, Rusałka Lake, landscape evaluation, landscape perception
JEL: Q59

Monika Urbaniak

Devolution in the Italian Healthcare System. The Role of Regions
in Organizing Healthcare after 2001

(article in English)
A very important act reforming healthcare in Italy was the Act of 23 December 1978, which initiated devolution of competence in the matter of healthcare, with the transfer of administrative and legislative functions in this field to regions. As a result of this reform, Italy underwent a transfer from the insurance model of healthcare financing to the model of national healthcare service. Other changes concerning, first of all, the form of the regional state and broadening regional autonomy were introduced by the Constitutional Act No. 3 of 18 October 2001, amending Title V of the Constitution and concerning the status of regions, provinces and communes. As a result of these reforms, it is regions that currently represent the most important level of administration between the central government and communes. The main result of the process of federalism is how the regions were granted authority to allocate owned funds in the healthcare system in the manner that they consider most appropriate for funding basic levels of services (LEA) in their territory, as well as the management of the organization of healthcare in their local area in the way that meets the requirements of the population living there.

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Keywords: constitution, devolution, Italy, healthcare
JEL: H7, R5

Dorota Tomczyszyn, Józef Bergier, Wiesław Romanowicz, Zofia Kubińska

Barriers to Professional Activity in the Opinion of the Disabled and Employers
from Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The purpose of the research was to identify the barriers to professional activity among disabled persons in the opinion of the disabled living in rural areas and in the opinion of their employers. We have examined 800 disabled respondents and 100 employers both from Lubelskie Voivodship. People with disabilities indicated the following reasons for inactivity: lack of jobs suitable for people with different levels and types of disability, the importance of place of residence and in this connection difficulties in getting to work; limitations resulting from the disability, inadequate education, and negative attitudes of employers towards persons with disabilities. Important was the fact that the surveyed employers also considered these factors the most crucial causes of the failure to undertake professional activity among the disabled.

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Keywords: barriers to professional activity, disabled person, employer
JEL: J24

Tomasz Derewiecki, Krzysztof Mroczek, Małgorzata Mroczek, Marta Duda,
Danuta Chmiel-Derewiecka, Piotr Majcher

Risk Factors Determining the Occurrence of Obesity among Women
in the Zamość County

(article in English)
The progress of civilization in Europe and many countries throughout the world has contributed to changing the way of life for entire societies. It has caused a dramatic increase in the rate of obesity. Overweight and obesity make a timeless problem. The twenty-first-century man, apart from deriving a hedonistic pleasure from eating, avoids any physical effort, which causes decreasing physical fitness and increasing of body mass. The goal of the present paper is the analysis of risk factors determining occurrence of obesity among women. An author’s survey was conducted on a sample of 604 women in Zamość district, Poland. The results were statistically analyzed, on the level of significance of p < 0,05. 22,52% of the studied group distinguished themselves with a BMI index from 25 to 30 (overweight ), whereas 7,95% had a BMI > 30, indicating obesity. The analysis of results showed that the most exposed to being overweight and obesity are women over 65 years old, with primary education or vocational training and a sedentary nature of work. Their place of dwelling had no effect on their body weight. Promoting an active way of life would be appropriate, oriented for maintaining a proper body mass. Society should be made aware of the importance of this problem and consequences of lack of knowledge on it.

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Keywords: risk factors, Body Mass Index (BMI), obesity, women
JEL: C10, I12

Rafał Sapuła, Adam Topolski, Joanna Sapuła, Michał Idzikowski, Sylwia Rogowska

Socioeconomic Status of MS Patients in the Podkarpackie Voivodship —
a Pilot Study

(article in English)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the nervous system. There are approximately 2 million people suffering from MS worldwide. Poland belongs to the countries with high MS incidence and presently the estimated number is 60 000. The neurologic deficiencies occurring in result of the disease have a negative impact on many aspects of life, including professional life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the MS patients in the Podkarpackie Voivodship. The study covered 25 MS cases from the Podkarpackie Voivodship. In all cases, MS was diagnosed by a specialist. A survey consisting of 40 single-choice questions was designed for the purposes of the study. The analysis of the data obtained from the survey indicated that the majority of the MS patients are professionally inactive which has a negative impact on their economic status. The ability to work and perform ADLs decreases in patients aged 40 or more. The self-service functions and the abilities to perform housework also deteriorate with time. The patients require assistance and care from others.

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Keywords: multiple sclerosis (MS), professional activity, socioeconomic status
JEL: I00

Mieczysław Kowerski, Magdalena Kowal

Marital Separation in Poland. Regional Approach

(article in English)
In the paper the basic regional trends of marital separation which is, especially for Catholics, an alternative institution to divorce in Poland were presented. After a rapid increase at the beginning of the 21st century, the number of ordered separations started to decrease and now the relation of separations to divorces is smaller than 5%. Regionally, it is observed that the differentiation of the intensity of separations among various voivodships is decreasing, yet in more urbanized voivodships, which have a lower religiousness rate and a higher divorce rate, separations are more common.

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Keywords: marital separation, divorce, Poland, voivodship, linear panel model with fixed specific effects
JEL: J12, C23

Krzysztof Pancerz, Arkadiusz Lewicki

Extracting Decision Rules from Linguistic Data Describing Economic Phenomena. The Approach Based on Decision Systems over Ontological Graphs and PSO

(article in English)
The aim of the paper is to present a heuristic method for extracting the most general decision rules from linguistic data describing economic phenomena included in simple decision systems over ontological graphs. Such decision systems have been proposed to deal with linguistic attribute values, describing objects of interest, which are concepts placed in semantic spaces expressed by means of ontological graphs. Ontological graphs deliver some additional knowledge (the so-called background knowledge) about semantic relations between concepts which can be useful in classification processes. As heuristics, we propose to use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO ), which is reported as a successful method in many applications.

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Keywords: decision rules, decision systems, ontological graphs, particle swarm optimization
JEL: D8

Jan Andreasik

Knowledge-Based System for Assessment of Economic Situation of Enterprise

(article in English)
In the paper, the author’s conception of building an intelligent system for predicting economic situation of enterprises is presented. This conception is captured in the form of the prediction chain (PC). A process of reasoning by analogy is performed using a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology. In the paper, a model of an enterprise, concentrating on identification of the competence potential and competence gap, is shown. A protocol of an assessment of potential and assessment of competence gap in a given range, using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), is presented. Individual elements of a system for creating the knowledge are captured in the form of an A-E-AE (Agent-Expert-Acts of Explanation). The structures of classes in the Protege editor are shown. At the end, a coordination diagram in the UML language is depicted. This diagram makes up a diagram of the interface between an expert and a CBR system.

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Keywords: enterprise ontology, intelligent systems, predicting, case-based reasoning, expert systems
JEL: A12, D8

Bożena Ryszawska

Abstract of Bożena Ryszawska's book
Zielona gospodarka — teoretyczne podstawy koncepcji i pomiar jej wdrażania w Unii Europejskiej
[Green Economy — Theoretical Grounds of the Concept and the Measure of Its Implementation in the European Union — book in Polish]

(article in English)
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