cover vol. 12 no. 2

Abstracts

Justyna Zygmunt

Determinants of Knowledge Transfer in a Region

(article in English)
The main goal of the paper is to identify the determinants of knowledge transfer in a region on the basis of literature studies. The paper begins by discussion of the concept of knowledge transfer and its importance to regional development. Then it focuses on transfer of knowledge, with regard in particular to the triple-helix model. It also indicates the concept of success in the processes of knowledge transfer. A section of the paper contains a discussion of the determinants of transfer of knowledge in a region. The basis for recognition of the determinants in question were literature studies. On these grounds evidences were found to suggest that knowledge transfer in a region is determined by heterogeneous factors. The findings provide the basis for developing practical advice on effective knowledge transfer practices.

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Keywords: knowledge transfer, region, innovation
JEL: D83, R11, R58

Aleksandra Zygmunt

R&D Expenditures in Poland. Voivodship Perspective

(article in English)
The main purpose of the paper is R&D expenditures analysis at the level of Poland’s voivodships. First, the significance of R&D expenditures in development of region competitiveness is considered. Next, intramural expenditures on R&D by NACE 2007 sections and by fields of science in particular are examined within a voivodship perspective. Subsequently, a comparison of R&D expenditures between Poland’s voivodships is conducted. Particular attention is paid to such variables as: persons employed in R&D per 1000 economically active persons, units with research and development activity by sectors of performance, intramural expenditures on R&D per capita, extramural expenditures on R&D and intramural expenditures on R&D in the business enterprises sector. The study is based on cluster analysis, which provided a cluster distance matrix and is based on data from the Central Statistical Office of Poland — Local Data Bank.

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Keywords: R&D expenditures, knowledge transfer, competitiveness of regions, voivodships
JEL: R11

Gabriela Jyż

Legal Determinants of Knowledge Transfer (selected issues)

Article on selected issues related to the determinants of knowledge transfer arising from the applicable national law, Community law and international law. Regulations that are the subject of analysis are mainly in the area of intellectual property rights, industrial property rights and the rights of higher education. Discusses the most important legal solutions contained in international conventions and treaties on intellectual property, which favor a more rapid and greater transfer of innovative solutions and consequences that serve to support the global system of industrial property, and thus contribute to economic development.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, intellectual property law, intellectual property law, the law on higher education, innovation
JEL: D8

Andrzej Graczyk

Knowledge Commercialization Problems at Universities of Economics in Polande

The aim of the article is the analysis and the assessment of scale of commercialization results of scientific investigations at economic universities as well as the identification the basic factors influencing on range and ways of commercialization. The potential of knowledge at economic universities in the first part was introduced. Universities employ over 3000 persons with degrees and scientific titles. In the second part the commercial effects of research and development were discussed. The revenues coming from selling research and development services account for 5% of total revenues of public economic universities, and over 12% of whole number of universities The third part indicates the factors influencing on the weak level of university scientific staff commitment in conducting the research for practice. It in the fourth part the main ways of commercialization were described.

Keywords: knowledge commercialization, universities of economics in Poland, research services
JEL: A2, D83

Zbigniew Przygodzki

The Non-Governmental Sector in the Transfer of Knowledge and the Development of Human Capital in the Region

(article in English)
Inter-sectoral cooperation is one the most important elements of contemporary, territorially-focused policy. Deriving from the conditions shaped by the environment, on a global-scale as well, local actors should join forces by investing in the resources determining today’s’ development – knowledge and human capital – in the most effective way. However, internal national or regional conditions very often do not allow for efficient adaptation of development mechanisms. By narrowing the area of analysis to the relationships between territorial self-government and non-governmental organizations, this paper is an attempt to answer the question as to the scale and scope, in Polish conditions, public-social partnerships are being built. The analysis concerns the institutions involved in the investment in knowledge and human capital operating in the region of Lodz.

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Keywords: human capital, region, knowledge transfer, NGOs
JEL: R11

Brygida Klemens

The Concept of Clusters and Knowledge Transfer Issues in Perspective 2014–2020

In this article considerations concerning the possibility of the development of clusters and support the transfer of knowledge in a new perspective of the period 2014-2020 have been taken. The main purpose of the article was to show how cluster’s subject and knowledge transfer are presented in selected strategic documents perspective 2014–2020. The construction of the article consists of four parts. The first of them was taken to investigate the question of creation, codification and transfer of knowledge for innovation and support of cluster structures. In the second part made a schematic summary of the cluster concept, their characteristics and types, with particular emphasis on knowledge clusters. The third part was devoted to a cluster structures and the transfer of knowledge in selected documents of the EU level, and the fourth deals with the same issues but on a national level.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, clusters, the prospect of 2014-2020, Europe 2020
JEL: F5, O1, O2, O3, R1

Marcin Łuszczyk

Development of the Intellectual Capital with Chance for Polish Regions

Economic slowing down, of which we are witnesses, is inducing the intellectual capital for seeking new growth factors, amongst which it deserves the particular attention. The wide usage of the intellectual capital in the creation process of the income allows to fill up deficiencies of the anthropogenic capital and natural resources more and more limited. According to the author, well-planned investments being aimed at increasing of the intellectual capital are a chance of stimulating the social-economic development of Polish regions. The promotion of science and higher education can be an effective means of implementation of this task in the region. So that taken action in the education is effective and long-lasting supplementing them is essential. These can be programs supporting families, but also directing notable benefits to parents with two children. The activity of self-government bodies in the development of the education and the social policy should bring additional benefits in the form of synergistic effects.

Keywords: intellectual capital, educational policy, regional development
JEL: I25, O34, R11

Łukasz Mach

Analysis of Regional Potentials as a Basis for Creation and Knowledge Transfer

This paper presents the research process aimed at parameterization of all Polish regions with particular reference to their potential, the structure of companies and competitive performance. Determination of these parameters was performed using the Shift-share analysis, allowing for the analysis of shifts in industry in particular provinces. Description industries was made in accordance with the Polish Classification of Activities in force since 2007. Determination of total regional potentials, potentials of the industry, competitive industries and structures of companies was a prerequisite for the possible creation and transfer of knowledge across different regions.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, the potential for regional competitiveness
JEL: R11, R58

Piotr Hajduga

Strategic Directions of Social and Economic Development of Eastern Poland Until 2020 in the Context of Programming Cohesion Policy for the Period 2014–2020

In view of the progressive contemporary processes of global economic, social and cultural development, as well as increased competition in the world, an effective defense against the marginalization of the least developed regions should be to build competitiveness on the basis of their endogenous, “soft,” the intellectual resources of the local environment, taking into account external conditions. Research shows that the differences in these resources underlie persistent in the social and economic space of development disparities. Today’s cohesion policy, focused primarily on the process of equalization of opportunities for development, faced another challenge — to determine the best combination of traditional and new (intellectual) development factors in areas with distinct developmental distance. The purpose of this article is to identify trends and challenges facing the East-ern Poland in the face of changes in the European Union’s cohesion policy for 2014–2020.

Keywords: regions of Eastern Poland, regional policy, cohesion policy, directions in regional development
JEL: F15, R11, R58

Barbara Kryk

e-Administrative Determinants of Living Quality as a Reflection of Knowledge Transfer Quoting the Example of Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship

Institutional and administrative factors contributing to the quality of life have recently been adopted for measuring this quality. Of major importance are services provided as part of e-administration in order to meet information needs, and to be more specific for the sake of knowledge acquisition as well as social and official communication. E-administration standards not only determine living quality in a given region, but also show the extent to which knowledge in this scope is being transferred. The article presents the results of assessment made in order to determine objective living quality as far as e-administration in Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship is concerned. The author discusses factors that have contributed to such results making use of desk research and taxonomic analysis.

Keywords: quality of life, e-administration, knowledge, region
JEL: D7, H83

Aleksandra Zygmunt, Mirosława Szewczyk

Acquisition of European Union Funds for Knowledge Transfer by Enterprises from Opolskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The main purpose of the paper is the analysis of enterprises from Opolskie Voivodship in the context of their acquisition of European Union funds for knowledge transfer. First, the range of knowledge transfer in regional development is emphasized. Afterwards, an analysis is made of Opolskie Voivodship enterprises in the range of the major Operational Programme Innovative Economy priorities connected with knowledge transfer. Particular attention is paid to such priorities as: R&TD activities lead by research centers; technology transfer and improvement of the network of cooperation between SMEs, SMEs and other enterprises, universities and post-secondary schools, regional authorities, research centers and technology and research parks; support for R&TD development (especially in SMEs); and investment in enterprises connected especially with research and innovation. The study uses data from KSI SIMIK concerning the Operational Programme Innovative Economy.

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Keywords: knowledge transfer, Operational Programme Innovative Economy, enterprise, Opolskie Voivodship
JEL: R11

Małgorzata Rogowska

Determinants of Socio-Economic Development of South Poland Till 2020

In the era of turbulent shifts in the global economy, globalization, competition, innovation and permanent economic crisis also followed the evolution of governance in the territorial units, including a new approach to strategic management. The new conditions are increasingly committed to cooperate. This applies not only to companies but also regions increasingly recognize the benefits of synergy. This is potentially a good way to make better use of endogenous potential, boosting socio-economic development, attracting capital from outside, and a better way to solve common problems of different nature.

Keywords: macro-regional strategies, governance, EU spatial policy
JEL: R5

Kazimierz Szczygielski

Opolskie Voivodship’s Society — Main Challenges of the Region Development in Demographic Aspect

The second decade of the twenty-first century is for Poland and its particular regions a new stage of development in changed and still changing conditions, including the context of the presence in the EU structures. It also results in the necessity of establishing these conditions and deciding about sustaining or redefining challenges, arising from received findings. We present the opinion, that for Poland, and for the Opole Province in particular, the sine qua non condition of the development is resolving the demographic issue. The three, most important, population phenomena course perspective is very disquieting: significant decreasing of number of population, caused, among others, by the lowest fertility level in Poland, the highest scale of foreign emigration in Poland and progressive population ageing process, escalated by migratory outflow of young people. It is important, for the stability of the process, to prevent excessive differentiation of the economic space, measured by communities wealth.

Keywords: regional policy, regional development, demographic changes
JEL: J1, R11

Małgorzata Wachowska

The Role of „Proximity” in Knowledge Transfer to a Region. An Analysis of Patent Aitations

The aim of the article is to show the role of geographical and sectoral proximity in the transfer of knowledge to entities from Opolskie Voivodship. An analysis of patent documents filed at the Polish Patent Office by entities from the Opole region for geographical and sectoral location of sources of knowledge cited by these entities made it possible to formulate two basic conclusions. Firstly, geographical proximity is irrelevant to knowledge acquisition by entities in the Opole region. More than 78% of knowledge is transferred from abroad and only 22% flows from other places in Poland. The knowledge flowing from other countries comes mainly from the United States (34,1%) and Japan (22,1%) and then from Germany (13,1%), which also shows that geographical proximity is not important for knowledge acquisitions by entities from the Opole region. Secondly, sectoral proximity is important in knowledge acquisition by entities from industry but it does not play a significant role for science sector entities. Only 19,4% of knowledge is transferred from science sector to industry and as much as 80,6% of it between entities within industry. It means that enterprises from the Opole region base their inventiveness mainly on knowledge from other enterprises with only little interest in achievements of universities or other R&D units. Meanwhile, in the case of science sector entities, as much as 77,8% of knowledge flows from industry to these and only 22,2% from other science sector entities.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, patent citations, geographical proximity, sectoral proximity, Opolskie Voivodship
JEL: O3, O33, F2

Alicja Małgorzata Graczyk

Social and Economic Conditionings of Knowledge Transfer in Passive Building Sector

The aim of the article is the analysis and the assessment of social and economic conditionings of knowledge transfer in passive building sector. The energy-saving building sector is in his first stage of development now, affected by the implementation of energy efficiency law. Sector at present, encounters many barriers of development relating the transfer of knowledge difficulties and the experiences between basic market subjects: investors and entities. The article in the first part treats about policy and legal conditions of passive building development. Part second concerns the rules of passive building standard. The third part draws the attention to the analysis of socio - economic conditions of knowledge transfer in this sector. The conditions increasing knowledge transfer development in the sector in part fourth were analysed.

Keywords: passive building, transfer of knowledge, economic and social conditions
JEL: Q55

Anna Jasińska-Biliczak

Knowledge Transfer in Region — Challenge for Science, Economics and Entrepreneurship of the Region

The knowledge transfer problem form the world of science to the wide understood economy is, especially nowadays, very important matter in which are involved many European Union countries. Worked, developed, implemented and improved models require of practical implementation of the handing over to the knowledge in one side and the flexibility as well as openness for new, innovative terminations from the other side. The very important aspect of knowledge transfer problem is knowledge transfer in region. The aim of the article is presentation of research results concerning perceiving the process of the transfer of knowledge in the region and its meaning, meaning the importance of innovation and the cooperation of the science and the business for enterprises.


Keywords: knowledge transfer, region, science and business, B&R, innovations in region
JEL: H00, P00

Agnieszka Rzeńca

Determinants of Higher Education Policy. The Example of Higher Education Institutions in the Region of Lódź

A traditional mission of a higher education school consists of two elements: carrying out academic research and teaching which refers to the latest cognitive contents. The third new element of the mission is a direct public easement. In the recent years, the role of higher education institutions, in shaping the social-economic reality where an active participation in the process of region and country development is a challenge, is emphasized. The subject of the article is identification of the main determinants of higher education policy. Theoretical discussions are a point of departure for the presentation of the outcomes of research carried out in the scope of the project “Policy and tools for creating human resources in the region” in higher education institutions of Lodz region. The market of educational services is changing dynamically, the last 20 years, because of the overlapping external and internal conditions, caused revolutionary changes also in the higher education schools in the region of Lodz. The educational profile has been changing also due to the external support of the education in the faculties of Science and Technology and cooperation between the related subjects.

Keywords: educational policy, higher education, educational offer
JEL: I21, I23, I 25, J24

Małgorzata Adamska

Management of Client Capital in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises of the Opolskie Voivodship — the Regional of Local Research

The paper characterized the capital client, present as one of the most important elements in the structure of intellectual capital, based on a careful analysis of the literature and previous experience with ongoing placements in enterprises of the Opolskie Voivodship in the positions of: self-specialist for marketing and development and specialist for customer relationship management. Presented will be also a part of the report based on theresults of studies carried outon the client capital management, implemented in the first quarter of 2014 among small and medium-sized enterprises Opole province.

Keywords: client capital, customer relationship management
JEL: M2

Dorota Rynio

Creating of Common Socio-Economic Development Strategies — West Poland Example

In global and integrated with EU economy, in some market turbulences and looking for financial funds, there is a consolidation of smaller territorial units into big mega ones. That’s for creation of units which can implement common development strategies, making use of potentials of subregions in another way, creation big functional areas and cohered areas with wide offer for all groups of consumers. In Poland the macroregions have advantage because of big activation of local government in the field of cohered goals of unit. West Poland is a unit that has a great potential of localization. Common development strategy of West Poland has a goal to help the area for competitiveness, openness, and reaching of benefits of scale and synergy effects.

Keywords: macroregion, West Poland, region al development, strategy, network economy, region resources
JEL: R11

Przemysław Sekuła

Program Management According to PMI

Te goal of the paper is to present Standard of Program Management prepared by Program Management Institute. The paper is based on third version of standard, released in 2006. First chapters describe the meaning of notion “program” and place of program management in PMI standards. The other part of article is dedicated to description of standard. It is divided into three chapters (themes, life cycle and processes). This part is focused on practical approach and can be used to choosing whether to implement standard or not.

Keywords: Program Management According to PMI
JEL: H8

Karina Bedrunka

Dual Education System in the Opolskie Voivodship as a Response to Entrepreneurs’ Needs

Preventing and averting depopulation is the most important development challenge facing the Opolskie Voivodship in the coming years. An important factor that affects the demographic situation of the region is the quality of the labour market. There is too few rewarding jobs in the Opolskie Voivodship; moreover, the workers’ skills do not adequately meet the expectations of employers, including entrepreneurs. Improving the situation requires, first of all, carrying out a reform of the education system by — among other things — developing the dual education system. The implementation of such a system should be based on a reliable diagnosis of employers’, especially entrepreneurs’, needs, leading to a specification of such fields of dual education, which are adjusted to those diagnosed needs. The research model presented in the article can serve this purpose.

Keywords: dual education, depopulation, labour market needs, supply and demand of labour, human capital, enterprise
JEL: I2, J2