cover vol. 12 no. 3


Anna Lewandowska, Elżbieta Inglot-Brzęk, Rusłan Harasym

Determinants of Polish Exports to the Ukrainian Market

(article in English)
The aim of this article is to diagnose the state of Polish-Ukrainian economic relations in the area of ​​trade in goods and services, with particular emphasis on the export of goods to the Ukrainian market. The study includes an analysis of the legal conditions and statistical data on trade cooperation between Poland and Ukraine. In order to deepen the theoretical discussion, a quantitative study was carried out among Polish enterprises cooperating with Ukrainian partners, or operating on the Ukrainian market. The results are primarily focused on depicting the exports of goods and services of Polish entrepreneurs to the Ukrainian market.

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Keywords: trade, export, enterprise, international cooperation
JEL: F31, F50, P13

Łukasz Cywiński, Ruslan Harasym

Stimulants of FDI Flows Between Poland and Ukraine

(article in English)
The main goal of this paper is to diagnose the stage of economic relations between Poland and Ukraine in the scope of Foreign Direct Investments with a particular emphasis on factors that stimulate the inflow of Polish capital to the Ukrainian economy. The research focuses on the analysis of institutional factors and policy incentives as well as the analysis of statistical data broken down into sectors of industry and geographical distribution of FDI. The presented outcomes of this research also focus on factors that might motivate Polish investors to establish their businesses in Ukraine, and (what might be particularly relevant for Ukraine) factors that discourage FDI inflows.

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Keywords: investment climate, FDI, FDI flows, Poland, Ukraine
JEL: F36, F53, P45

Justyna Zygmunt

Firms as a Component of Smart Specialisation in the Opolskie Voivodship Development Strategy

(article in English)
The main goal of the paper is to study the significance of businesses as a component of smart specialization, on the basis of the Opolskie Voivodship Development Strategy. The structure of the paper consists of two sections. The first part is related to theoretical studies which consider companies as an element of smart specialisation. The second part of the paper contains the analysis of Opolskie Voivodship Development Strategy with regard to the relevance of companies in a smart specialization of the voivodship in question.

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Keywords: firms, smart specialisation, region, innovation, Opolskie Voivodship
JEL: R11, R58

Aleksandra Zygmunt, Mirosława Szewczyk

Opolskie Voivodship “Gazelle” Innovation Potential

(article in English)
The necessity for enterprises to adapt to constantly changing surrounding requires innovation activities, which impact regional development. In that area the essential meaning for a particular region’s innovation potential is driven by enterprises, which are characterized by more than proportional growth. The conducted studies are based on the assumption that the fundamental role in a region is played by enterprises which very rapidly increase in value — known as “gazelles.” The main purposes of the study is the examination of gazelles in Opolskie Voivodship. The paper consists of two parts. The first part contains considerations of issues connected with innovations of regions, their innovation potential and the significance of gazelles in improving the level of a region’s innovations. The second part is concentrated on the analysis of gazelles in Opolskie Voivodship. Analysis was made of the activities structure of Opolskie Voivodship’s gazelles, their segmentation based on technological intensity (manufacturing) and knowledge-intensive activities (services). The research also contains a structure similarity comparison. The essential data source used was Forbes’ rating “Forbes Diamonds.” The period under analysis is 2009–2013.

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Keywords: region’s innovation potential, gazelles, Opolskie Voivodship
JEL: R11

Krzysztof Pancerz, Olga Mich

Numerical Data Clustering Algorithms in Mining Real Estate Listings

(article in English)
In the paper, we propose a method for mining real-estate listings using clustering algorithms intended for numerical data. The presented approach is based on information systems over ontological graphs. Such information systems have been proposed to deal with data in the form of concepts linked by different semantic relations. A special attention is focused on preprocessing steps transforming advertisements in the textual form into information systems defined over ontological graphs, as well as on encoding attribute values for clustering algorithms.

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Keywords: clustering, data mining, information systems, ontological graphs, real-estate listings
JEL: C38

Monika Wasilewicz-Pszczółkowska, Adam Senetra, Agnieszka Szczepańska

Reclamation of Degraded Land at Regional Level and Conversion of
Agricultural Land for Non-Agricultural Purposes

(article in English)
Intensified anthropogenic pressures contribute to land degradation and devastation around the globe. Land degradation leads to a temporary or a permanent decline in the productive capacity of land. Degraded agricultural land is often converted to non-agricultural uses, as the result areas with natural land cover (arable land, meadows, pastures) are transformed into anthropogenic landscapes. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the area of degraded land in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship based on the scope of implemented land reclamation measures. The area of land converted for non-agricultural purposes, the revenues generated from conversion fees and their distribution were also evaluated. The analyzed data covered the period of 2007–2012.

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Keywords: agricultural land, land reclamation, land degradation, land conversion to non-agricultural uses
JEL: Q1, Q5

Marcelina Zapotoczna, Joanna Cymerman

Repair and Renovation Reserve as a Tool of Commonhold Repair
and Renovation Policies in Residential Properties Co-owned
by Local Councils in Poland

(article in English)
The article discusses the repair and renovation funds as a tool of commonhold repair and renovation policies in residential properties co-owned by Polish local councils (commons). The authors made an attempt to discriminate features of 202 commonholds and form their homogenous groups in order to prove that there was a correlation between the commune’s share in a divided co-property and the commonholds’ repair and renovation policies. The discrimination was based on selected variables and conducted by means of six methods of discriminant analysis. The study covered commonholds co-owned by the commune of Olsztyn which were managed by a community partnership from 2007 to 2011.

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Keywords: repair and renovation reserve, commonhold, commune, discriminant analysis, commonhold grouping

Teresa Szymura

Chemical and Instrumental Testing of Cement-Based Materials Leading
to the Reconstitution of Their Substrate Composition

(article in English)
The article discusses testing of cement-based materials with the application of chemical analyses as well as of classical techniques according to the Polish standards: PN-EN 196–2:2006: “Methods for cement testing – Part 2: Chemical analysis of cement” and PN-EN 1744–1 “Tests for chemical properties of aggregates. Chemical analysis”. The obtained testing results have been verified by means of instrumental methods using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for materials with certified reference samples. In other cases interpolation techniques have been applied. Estimated substrate composition of the produced cement-based materials has been calculated based on the material balance using a computer program. Final results have been calculated as an arithmetic mean of all possible solutions that meet boundary conditions. Joint application of both the mentioned methods to reconstitute substrate composition of cement-based materials has yielded results that approach the originally applied real composition at the maximum difference of a few percent.

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Keywords: concrete, portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), mixture proportion, X-ray diffraction (XRD)
JEL: O18, O3

Tomasz Szul

Spatial Diversity in the Share of Local Sources of Biomass
in Meeting Heating Needs in the Rural Areas of Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
An analysis of heat consumption and the potential of biomass energy was made in particular counties of Lubelskie Voivodship and its spatial diversity was analyzed. Demand for heat in the rural areas of the voivodship runs at a level of 12993 GWh/year while potential biomass that can be used for energy is 5333 GWh/year. On this basis it is estimated that biomass’ share in the voivodship energy sources for heating needs can amount to 43%. To estimate spatial diversity in the share of biomass in covering demand for heat within the voivodship fuzzy sets were used. The highest biomass participation in meeting heat demand needs appears in the eastern and southern counties of the voivodship (Parczewski, Hrubieszowski, Janowski, Biłgorajski, Kraśnicki, Włodawski counties), while the lowest potential was noted in the counties in the north-west (łukowski, opolski and łęczńyski) and these being in the neighbourhood with town counties, including Lublin and Zamość.

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Keywords: final energy consumption for heating, biomass potential energy, fuzzy sets
JEL: C31, R58, Q42, Q47

Marcelina Zapotoczna

Taxonomic Analysis of Spatial Diversification of Housing
in Selected Countries of the European Union

(article in English)
This article proposes to employ taxonomic methods to assess the residential situation in selected countries of the European Union. A synthetic measure was used whose construction was based on diagnostic variables which characterise the housing and socioeconomic conditions in the countries included in the study. This measure made it possible to arrange the items under study in a linear manner by residential situation (from the best to the worst). In addition, Ward’s method of classification was used to arrange countries in groups with similar residential situations. Similar results were obtained in both classifications for the years 2007 and 2013. The proposed procedure can be used by state authorities to make housing policy decisions.

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Keywords: multivariate comparative analysis, synthetic measure, housing market
JEL: R31

Waldemar A. Gorzym-Wilkowski

Spatial Planning in the Tourism Economy in the Lublin Region:
Aid or Obstacle?

(article in English)
Lubelskie Voivodship needs new stimuli of economic development, and tourism can be one of them. However, a chaotic development of this sector can bring short-term benefits, and it can also lead to numerous conflicts between various entities and have an adverse impact on the state of tourist assets. In consequence, the disadvantages can prevail over the advantages in the long term. Such a risk can be mitigated by spatial planning, specifically by local spatial development plans issued by local governments in communes.

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Keywords: Lubelskie Voivodship, spatial planning, tourism economy
JEL: O21, R11

Elżbieta Stach, Łukasz Matoga, Aneta Pawłowska

Evaluation of Tourist Attractiveness of the Communes in Chełm County
in the Context of the Development of Cross-Border Tourism

(article in English)
Tourism in the eastern, border areas of Poland is based primarily on natural values, which are supplemented by regional cultural heritage. For this reason, Chełm County stands a fair chance of making tourism one of the pillars of its development, especially in rural areas. The purpose of the article was to evaluate tourist attractiveness of the communes and one municipality of Chełm County using the method of synthetic measure and attempt to identify real and potential directions for tourism development with particular emphasis on cross-border tourism. The results of the evaluation of tourist attractiveness indicated that the creation of comprehensive packages of products based mostly on the values of the local environment can be an opportunity for increased tourism in the communes in Chełm County. However, insufficient tourist development, poor transport accessibility and low recognition of the area as a tourist destination can be limiting factors in the development of tourism in this county, so it is necessary to take measures connected with the development of infrastructure and promotion of the region.

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Keywords: Chełm County, cross-border tourism, tourist attractiveness, synthetic measure

Danuta Guzal-Dec

Supporting Development of Tourism by Local Municipal Self-Governments
within the Naturally Valuable Areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The aim of the work is to diagnose the activity of local governments in supporting tourism development in naturally valuable areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship (Poland ). The study area consisted of 30 municipalities with the highest natural value in the Lubelskie Voivodship selected for the study based on the value of the indicator developed by D. Guzal-Dec in the study of the natural value of rural and urban-rural communes within the Lubelskie Voivodship. A questionnaire interview was used for the diagnostic purposes of the survey. Interviews were completed in 2013. The research material comprised 30 interviews with mayors and staff dealing with environmental issues in municipal offices. Websites of the surveyed communes were an important source of information. In the surveyed group, approximately 75% of the authorities declared their preference for tourism as the main direction of development of their commune. Detailed analysis of the use of various instruments of support lead to the conclusion that about 50% of them actively support tourism, of which about 30% have a planned policy manifested in a comprehensive application of the instruments of support. It seems, therefore, that strategies of cooperation for the development of tourism should be systematically and rationally utilized, especially in communities with high natural potential and less favorable non-natural conditions for tourism development.

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Keywords: supporting tourism, local self-government, natural valuable areas, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: R11, R59

Jakub Gradziuk

My Sports Field Programme – Orlik 2012 as a Factor of Local Development

(article in English)
The study is devoted to the characteristics of the implementation of My Sports Field Programme – Orlik 2012 (in Polish: Moje Boisko Orlik-2012) in the years 2008–2011, based on the examples of chosen communes from hrubieszowski, tomaszowski and zamojski counties, located in Lubelskie Voivodship. The main aim of the article was to identify the role Orlik sports fields play in the socio-economic development of a commune in the market economy. Thus an analysis was carried out of the functioning of existing and planned investments in the project as well as research in selected local government units not benefiting from the programme.

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Keywords: local development, sports facilities, Programme Orlik 2012, Lubelskie Voivodship, Poland
JEL: R11, R51, R58

Andrzej Burda, Krzysztof Pancerz

Clustering and Visualization of Bankruptcy Patterns
Using the Self-Organizing Maps

(article in English)
Pattern recognition of bankrupt or non-bankrupt enterprises may not only extend or confirm the knowledge in economics, but also deliver to experts, from the standpoint of the decision support, a view of the economic and financial situation of the audited enterprise. Therefore, it may be an effective tool for early warning of the bankruptcy risk of the enterprise. Such a tool is especially important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the underdeveloped regions. The research described in the paper is intended for generation and visualization of the state of SMEs in the Podkarpacie region on the basis of information included in financial reports. A self-organizing map (SOM), often called the Kohonen net, has been used in the unsupervised modelling mode. Results of research show a high potential of the method to the stated objectives and the simplicity of the representation of knowledge transferred to entrepreneurs and financial analysts.

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Keywords: Self-Organizing Map, clustering, visualization, small and medium enterprises, bankruptcy
JEL: C45, G33

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak, Dawid Długosz, Mariusz Poninkiewicz

Assessment of Economic Cohesion of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
Cohesion is one of the most fundamental objectives of European regional policy. The basic unit of the cohesion policy in Poland is a voivodship. However voivodship in a lot of cases do not have the characteristics of a definition of region—they are not uniform in economic, social and cultural terms. That is why it seems quite legitimate to question about the internal consistency in voivodship. The aim of the article is to assess the change in differences of the Gross Domestic Product per capita in the Lubelskie Voivodship, divided into four subregions. The assessment has been made by employing statistical analysis and models of convergence for 1999-2012 period. Conducted research indicate, that starting from 2007 we can observe sigma and beta divergence in tested area. The metropolitan subregion of Lublin develops faster than other much poorer subregions and is characterised by the highest growth rate. Therefore, referring to the discussion about the „two speed Europe” it is possible to speak—of course being fully aware of the different problems—about a „two speed voivodship”.

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Keywords: divergence, convergence, GDP, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: C23, O47, R13