cover vol. 12 no. 4

Abstracts

Roman Reszel, Tadeusz Grądziel, Zdzisław Strupieniuk,
Zdzisław Kotuła, Tadeusz Grabowski

Forty Years of the Roztocze National Park

(article in English)
The article presents an outline of the history of nature conservation in Roztocze in the context of the establishment of the Roztocze National Park. It describes the main areas of the Park’s activities connected with the conservation of Roztocze’s natural and cultural heritage and making the Park area available for education and tourism. It also contains information about problems connected with the protection of this part of Roztocze.

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Keywords: Roztocze National Park, “Roztocze” Transboundary Biosphere Reserve
JEL: Q00

Joanna Szczęsna, Paweł Wojtanowicz

The Role of National Parks in Promoting Sustainable and Responsible Tourism

(article in English)
One of the contemporary challenges in the tourism industry is development in line with the idea of sustainable development. In order to implement these ideas and principles, broadly based social education is needed. National parks are institutions of great socio-educational impact and that is why they could be linked to the process of education for sustainable and responsible tourism. This article presents the results of a survey conducted in Polish national parks on their commitment to the process of social education promoting sustainable and responsible tourism, and indicates the still unused potential of national park activities which can contribute to raising public awareness in this regard.

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Keywords: sustainable and responsible tourism, national park, educatione
JEL: I00, L83, Q26

Magdalena Szczepańska, Michał Krzyżaniak, Dariusz Świerk, Miłosz Walerzak,
Piotr Urbański

Birdwatching as a Potential Factor in the Development of
Tourism and Recreation in the Region

(article in English)
Ornithological tourism, also known as birdwatching, is a form of cognitive tourism. Poland has enormous natural potential and ornithological tourism is developing more and more dynamically, so it is important to understand and organize it well. The aim of this study is to review information about ornithological tourism as one of the branches of tourism. It is also to prove that birdwatching may be the basis for tourism and economic development both in its local and regional aspects. The article also attempts to indicate the needs of tourist infrastructure for the development of ornithological tourism on the basis of a survey of 356 respondents, including 87 women. Most of the respondents were young people, aged under 35 (66,4%). 78% of them were urban inhabitants. Most had higher (64,4%) or secondary education (27,8%). The respondents indicated Biebrza National Park (18,3%), Warta River Mouth National Park (16,5%), the Gulf of Gdańsk (8,7%), Milicz Ponds (7,2%), Lake Jeziorsko (7,1%) as the most popular places of ornithological tourism. 34% of the respondents were of the opinion that birdwatching sites in Poland were poorly prepared for the activity.

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Keywords: ornithological tourism, birdwatching, regional development, questionnaire surveys
JEL: L83

Paweł Pytka

Sacred Objects as Cultural Assets of the Roztocze National Park
and Its Buffer Zone

(article in English)
Cultural landscape is an important element in determining the attractiveness of a given tourist area. Its specific elements are places of worship. Integrated into a unique natural landscape they can become a kind of gem, and their many values can be a significant stimulant to tourism. This article presents the religious buildings and objects located within the Roztocze National Park and its buffer zone: churches, various types of shrines, roadside crosses and statues and cemeteries. These places, besides performing their sacral function, are important for local communities: they are places of meetings, exchanges of views and solving problems. What is also important is the cultural aspect of these sites, together with their historical value. These various qualities of sacred objects can generate an increase in tourism throughout the entire region.

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Keywords: sacred object, religion, culture, tourism
JEL: L83, Z12

Mieczysław Kseniak, Karolina Pałgan, Piotr Szkołut

Zwierzyniec. From Hetman’s Hunting Park to National Park
and Civic Garden City

Zwierzyniec landscape was shaped by various factors over the centuries. Today’s name derives from so called ‘zwierzyniec’ — a hunting settlement set up here by Jan Zamoyski. During the industrial epoch Zwierzyniec reminded a garden city modelled on Howard’s concept. At the beginning of the twentieth century Zwierzyniec experienced a period of decline, which resulted in the degradation of the orderly landscape. Through a specific relationship between man and nature a unique cultural landscape has been created. Nowadays Zwierzyniec is being revitalized. It is crucial to incorporate appropriate policies concerning the landscape and its history into a local development strategy. In the longer term it will cause an enhancement of tourist virtues, especially when it comes to cultural heritage tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, cultural landscape, revaluation of historical gardens, towns revitalization
JEL: Q26, R58

Ewa Skowronek, Andrzej Tucki, Marta J. Jóźwik

The Structure and Perception of Tourist Landscape in Zwierzyniec

Due to the outstanding qualities of the natural environment and the exquisite cultural heritage, Zwierzyniec is one of the most famous and most popular tourist towns in the Roztocze region. The traditions of Zwierzyniec as a holiday resort were derived from the 16th century, when the countryside residence of Zamoyski family was established. Throughout the next centuries the town was also an administrative and industrial center, which impacted on further stages of the development of its landscape. However, the ongoing economic activities did not contribute to the disruption of the space layout of the town. Nowadays, the attractiveness of Zwierzyniec is mainly based on the unique natural landscape, which results from the location on the border of two different sub-regions — the Western Roztocze made of loess and the Middle Roztocze made of lime-sandy as well as the presence of picturesque valleys of Wieprz and Świerszcz rivers, the Echo ponds, the Rudka Haff and surroundings of Kosobudy and Zwierzyniec forests (under legal protection as Roztoczański National Park since 1974). All of above mentioned components influence the development of the tourist function of the town, which is reflected by its typical landscape. It involves assets and attractions as well as necessary tourist facilities, which arouse interest and arrivals, which reached 100 thousand visitors every year. The following article contains an analysis of the components of a tourist landscape based on the case study of Zwierzyniec as well as a study on its perception by residents and tourists.

Keywords: tourist landscape, landscape perception, Roztocze region, Zwierzyniec
JEL: L83, Q26

Małgorzata Flaga, Marek Markiewicz

Evaluation of the Determinants of Religious Tourism Development
in the Roztocze Region

(article in English)
Roztocze possesses considerable cultural assets, conducive to developing tourism. Among them all, the sacred ones are especially significant because they are traces and witnesses of the former multicultural and multireligious character of the region. They are also excellent premises for advancing religious tourism. But there are some barriers that confine opportunities to develop that kind of tourist movement in Roztocze. First of all, is the general weak state of the tourism infrastructure. Besides that, there is an evident lack of professional promotion and elaborated offering of products of religious tourism. It seems that this form of tourism is not emphasized strongly enough in regional and local development strategies.

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Keywords: Roztocze, religious tourism, cultural values, sacred places, sanctuary
JEL: L83, Z12

Volodymyr Herych

Polish-Ukrainian Cooperation Concerning Cultural Heritage Protection
on the Example of the City of Zhovkva (Ukraine)

(article in English)
Signed in 1992 The Contract between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation provides opportunities for cooperation in the field of cultural heritage protection. In the paper are shown examples of such cooperation between city of Zhovkva (Ukraine) and Polish cultural institutions.

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Keywords: Polish-Ukrainian cultural heritage protection cooperation, Zhovkva (Ukraine), cross-border cooperation programme Poland–Belarus–Ukraine 2007–2013
JEL: Z1

Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski, Michał Marzec, Magdalena Gizińska-Górna, Aneta Pytka, Anna Skwarzyńska, Magdalena Gajewska, Tomasz Słowik, Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko, Aleksandra Steszuk, Tadeusz Grabowski, Zbigniew Szawara

The Concept of Construction of Hybrid Constructed Wetland
for Wastewater Treatment in Roztocze National Park

(article in English)
Roztocze National Park (RNP) is one of 23 national parks in Poland. It was created in 1974 both to protect the natural and cultural heritage as well as to share the park area for science, education and tourism. In caring for the environment, the park removed asbestos coverage, performs thermo-modernization using renewable energy sources by the installation of solar panels and photovoltaic cells on the roofs of buildings, and pellet stoves are installed in boiler rooms. Part of these actions includes the application of innovative technologies for water and wastewater, related to e.g. recovery of rainwater for washing cars and the construction of wastewater treatment wetlands. RNP has been spreading for many years the knowledge about the methods used to most effectively care for the natural environment. Constructed wetland (CW) technology could be one of such methods. The current research shows that facilities working in CW technology provide high pollutant removal and full guarantee of high ecological impact with low operating cost, so they can be used to protect the aquatic environment in protected areas and valuable landscapes. The paper presents a concept of solving the problems of wastewater treatment by means of using hybrid constructed wetland in three villages in the forest of Roztocze National Park. The advantages of the proposed technology are easy and simple operation, high resistance to irregular supply of water treatment and very low operating costs compared to conventional solutions. The natural look of CWs allows easy incorporation into the existing landscape.

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Keywords: hybrid constructed wetland, wastewater treatment, water protection, Roztocze National Park
JEL: Q52, Q53

Magdalena Boruch, Justyna Myśliwiec, Renata Chyżewska, Beata Żuraw,
Jan Rodzik

Development Design of the Poniatowski Hill
in the Architectural-Landscape Complex of the Town of Nałęczów

(article in English)
The area of the Poniatowski Hill, the subject of this research, is located in the architectural and landscape complex of Nałęczów spa, which is inscribed in the monuments register of Lubelskie Voivodship. At present, the hill is covered by dry-ground forest. The area is neglected and undoubtedly deserves restoration to the proper aesthetics. The location near the center of the town creates a need for arrangement of the terrain and adaptation for recreation and rest. Owing to the commitment of the authorities of Nałęczów and the local community, the idea of development design of the Poniatówka, as the hill is known, has been conceived. The design process has been preceded by complex analysis of the terrain and the project was framed on the basis of the outcomes. The conception complies with the necessity to maintain the hill in the least altered shape.

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Keywords: development design, natural landscape, Poniatowski Hill, Nałęczów town
JEL: R11

Marta Ziółek, Marcin Kozieł, Paweł Czubla

Spatial Variability of the Bioclimatic Conditions of the Roztocze National Park
Based on the Example of the Cycling Path to Florianka

(article in English)
The Roztocze National Park (RNP) is a typical forest park – 94% of its area is occupied by forest. A total of 13 forest communities are distinguished within RNP. The most valuable ones are Carpathian beech forest and uplands mixed fir coniferous forest, occupying almost 34% of the forested area of RNP. The microclimatic conditions occurring in forests differ considerably from those occurring in non-forested areas. Forests absorb dust and gas pollutants, suppress noise, and enrich the air in aromatic substances. The climate of the forest interior depends on aspects such as the species composition of the forest, density of crown trees, and habitat properties. Therefore, the effect of various forest communities on the human organism is different. This paper describes the forest communities appearing in RNP pointing out their therapeutic values, with particular consideration of the cycling path “to Florianka” (“do Florianki”). Based on GIS software, a spatial analysis of the properties of particular forest communities was performed. Maps were prepared presenting the bioclimate of the recreational layer of the forests, including: insulation, ventilation, humidity, oxygen and ozone production, ionisation, and content of aeroplankton and phytoaerosoles. The bioclimate occurring in particular communities was assessed as favourable/neutral/unfavourable for the human organism. The attractiveness of its environment makes RNP very popular among tourists (>100 thousand annually ). Tourist and didactic trails are established in the Park, with a total length of approximately 40 km. They run near the most interesting environmental, cultural, and historical objects. An example of such a trail is the cycling path “to Florianka” that was the subject of the detailed analysis. It has a length of approximately 10 km and is the longest trail established in RNP. The trail features the highest diversity of forest communities distinguished by a favourable effect on the human organism.

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Keywords: bioclimate, forest communities, tourism, Roztocze National Park
JEL: Q26

Piotr Gradziuk

Economic Efficiency of Photovoltaic Installations
(A Case Study at the Zwierzyniec–Biały Słup Research
and Education Centre of Roztocze National Park)

(article in English)
The paper presents an assessment of the economic efficiency of a 21 kW photovoltaic system consisting of 92 Viessmann Vitovolt P230RA modules and an SMA Sunny Tripower 17000TL inverter, installed at the Zwierzyniec-Bialy Słup Research and Education Centre of Roztocze National Park. The study was carried out from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014. The total investment cost associated with the purchase and assembly of the photovoltaic system was PLN 505  489,67. The annual value of the electric energy produced, including revenue from the sale of certificates of origin during this period, was PLN 6  793,48. The payback period for the investment was calculated at 74 years, which is more than double the anticipated exploitation period (30 years), with a present net value (NPV) of PLN 229  000. The paper also presents the results of a simulation-based calculation of the economic efficiency of such a system for three levels of investment costs: PLN 6 000 per kWp — variant 1, PLN 7 000 per kWp — variant 2, and PLN 8 000 per kWp — variant 3. The payback period ranged from 19 to 25 years, depending on the variant, and the NPV was positive for all variants.

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Keywords: economic efficiency, photovoltaic installation, renewable energy sources, green power, grid-connected
JEL: Q42, Q47

Teresa Brzezińska-Wójcik, Andrzej Świeca

Condition and Perspectives of Educational Environmental Tourism in Roztocze
in the Context of the Hands-On Activity Strategy

The cognitive component of environmental tourism reflects the relation between tourism and education, irrespective of the purpose of travel or individual benefits for the tourist. The unique natural values of Roztocze provides a very rich basis for educational tourism. This paper attempts to evaluate the current offer in the scope of educational tourism, geotourism, sylvan tourism, aviotourism and apitourism in Roztocze. It also presents the possibilities of application of the hands-on activity strategy in products of environmental tourism in terms of their development or diversification. The objective was implemented by means of the following methods: desk research, elimination, historical analysis and analysis of possibilities of development, as well as field inventory and interview with the organisers of the products. The Roztocze National Park is of particular importance for the development of the educational environmental tourism. In the Roztocze National Park offer, it combines the cognitivism with sensory and emotional experiences. The geotourism aspect is represented by linear (educational trails and paths ), local products (museums ), and item products (maps ). Sylvan tourism is supported by didactic paths in the state forests of Roztocze. Apitourism is the youngest form of environmental tourism in Roztocze region. The application of the hands-on activity strategy is one of the conditions necessary in the interpretation of the environmental heritage in the era of new trends, namely 3 E, 4 H, or REAL travel. The results of the analysis of the functioning tourist products in Roztocze reveal its elements present in some of them. The obtained results suggest that extensive possibilities in the scope exist in the area of the Roztocze National Park, as well as in the scope of products such as: the Educational Trail “DINOZAURY Krasnobród,” Geotourist Trail of the Middle Roztocze, or bee farm Ulik. It seems that the application of the hands-on activity strategy in the development/supplementation of tourist products in Roztocze will allow the participants/visitors to benefit from such products in an efficient and valuable way. It may also provide the basis for the further economic activisation of the region.

Keywords: education, natural tourism, hands-on activity strategy, Roztocze Region (Poland)
JEL: L83

Karolina Skoczylas

The Significance of the Atmosphere of an Environmentally Valuable Space
in the Organization of a the Tourist Event —
the Example of “Summer Film Academy” in Zwierzyniec

The Summer Film Academy in Zwierzyniec as a film festival generates festival tourism — a form of cultural tourism. The aim of the study is to determine the significance of the atmosphere of this environmentally valuable space — Roztocze National Park (RNP ) and Zwierzyniec — in the organization of the festival. The paper presents the history, idea and the way of organizing the festival. The paper presents results of questionnaires, carried out among participants and volunteers during the festival in its 13th edition, held on 3–12 August 2012. Based on the results, it is clear that the popularity of the festival is largely due to its location in the vicinity of the area valuable in terms of nature (RNP ), which also provides participants with a comfortable stay. The success of this festival also depends on the locality and peripherality, both in scope of the place in which it takes place and the subject of the films.

Keywords: festival tourism, festival, Summer Film Academy, Zwierzyniec, Roztocze National Park
JEL: L83

Stanisław Zięba, Krystyna Przybylska, Jan Banaś, Leszek Bujoczek

Strictly Protected Areas in National Parks as Reference
in Sustainable Forest Management

The idea of sustainable and multifunctional forest management promotes the search for reference of silviculture in natural objects and excluded from management. It is a difficult task due to the large areas of forest, longevity and complexity of forest ecosystems. The presented paper is an example of research using modern statistical and mathematical methods of inventory and periodic control of the forest. The study was performed in the area of 295 ha, strictly protected forests in the Roztocze National Park. The obtained results of research related to the measurement period 1996-2009. They reveal some important information for the practice: (1) in different site conditions can be implemented various species composition of forest stands without disturbing their stability; (2) species structure stands fluctuate over time, and the natural formation of species is an expression of the relationship of current conditions for their development; (3) in the measurement period there was a significant expansion of beech and hornbeam. Opposite trends were observed related to fir and oak; (4) dominance of beech trees in the lowest layer of the forest (90%) may be signal of the future development of natural species-poor, and even solid, beech stands.

Keywords: forestry, sustainable forest management, national park, beech stand
JEL: Q5, Q23

Adam Zydroń, Olga Pruchlat

Determination of the Social Value of the National Park Travel Cost Method

The aim of the pilot study was to determine the social value of the National Park travel cost method. The data obtained in the questionnaires of 184 people were used to determine these values. Also examined the average cost of travel of the respondents, and the results obtained allowed to determine the social value of the National Park. The study identified a high social value of the Park. The results of the analyzes are presented in graphical form. Wielkopolski National Park is visited throughout the year on average 30,01 times. In contrast, the highest number of visits to make people from areas located within a radius of 40 km. In order to reach the park overcome respondents on average 75 km, and the most frequently chosen means of transportation was a car. According to your responses calculated that the total cost of travel for all users of the park was PLN 10  991,13. But for the individual respondent's cost is set at PLN 61,06. Respondents largely do not benefit from the tourist base park, at the same time they are convinced of its low development. The total cost of the trip in the sample was estimated at PLN 55  164,23, which on average per user of the National Park was PLN 306,47. In order to determine the social value of the National Park obtained an average value of TCM referred to the average number of visitors to the park, which amounted to 1  200  000 visitors and obtained the result of PLN 367  764  000.

Keywords: environmental resources evaluation, travel cost method
JEL: Q01

Adam Zydroń, Dariusz Kayzer, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz

Factors Differentiating Expected Compensation Level
for Limiting Usage of the National Park of Wielkopolska

The aim of this study was to determine the factors differentiating expected compensation for limiting the National Park of Wielkopolska usage. Source materials for investigations concerning this problem were collected in the form of a standardised interview conducted in the years 2012–2013 among inhabitants of towns of the communes, in which NPW is located, as well as inhabitants of the city of Poznań, adjacent to these communes. The scope of the study comprised an analysis of material collected from 577 respondents during standardised interviews. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part comprised questions concerning general information on NPW (the state of knowledge, frequency of visits, importance of NPW for visitors, preferred forest site type ). The second part included questions concerning willingness of the respondents to incur expenses to benefit the natural environment (voluntary allocation of money for the possibility to use the nature value of NPW or potential compensation for the lack of access to the Park, alternatively if the respondent did not declare any amount of money, would they be willing to work as volunteers for the Park ). The third part covered socio-economic characteristics of respondents (sex, age, profession, net income per member of the household, education, place of residence ). The logit model was applied to determine factors modifying willingness to incur expenses for the benefit of the Park. The obtained results show that the highest expectations for the compensation received for the use of the National Park of Wielkopolska are revealed by low income older local population which rarely visiting the Park.

Keywords: environmental resources evaluation, contingent valuation method, logit analysis
JEL: Q01

Aleksandra Spychała, Sylwia Graja-Zwolińska

The Tourism Flow Monitoring in National Parks

The aim of this paper is to show the issues connected with the measurement of tourism flows in Polish national parks, as well as from the perspective of theory and practice, against the background of these importance foreign areas. Researchers — with the help of questionnaire survey among workers of these institutions — try to describe the reality concerning the monitoring and to determine their needs in the range of using methods, tools, cooperation with other entities during elaboration of monitoring schedule and its execution. The most important thing is to make an attempt to estimate changes, which have happened — or not — in tourist function created by Polish national parks on the basis of tourist monitoring results, and its possible modifications.

Keywords: tourism monitoring, tourism traffic, national park
JEL: L83

Bogdan Kościk, Katarzyna Szmidt, Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko, Zbigniew Mazur,
Monika Kwapisz

Potential Changes in Air Pollution Due to Replace Fossil Fuels
with Willow Biomass

The article consist comparative analysis of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and dust expressed in energy units produced from willow biomass, coal and heating oil. Those calculations proved that coal use caused over eighty times (for heating oil four times) increase of SO2 emission with comparison to biomass. The amount of NOx generated during the combustion of coal and fuel oil is respectively higher by 21% and lower than 26%. The use of coal reduced the CO emissions by 5% and fuel oil — 99% compared to biomass. Also the amount of NOx is higher respectively by 80% and 20%. Emission of CO is also higher (32%) than from biomass and for heating oil is lower by 99%. Energy production from fossil fuels entails 15–17% higher emission of CO2 than from renewable fuel. Dust emission was twice higher from coal when compared to willow chips. The lowest pollution of dust was noted for heating oil.

Keywords: willow, biomass, emissions from combustion
JEL: Q42, Q53

Renata Chyżewska, Magdalena Boruch, Justyna Myśliwiec, Beata Żuraw

The Design Concept of the Area around the Izba Leśna in Florianka

The Izba Leśna in Florianka, located in the Roztocze National Park, was based on buildings dating back to the year 1919. Nowadays the building serves as a museum. Next to the old warbler, are situated traditional buildings, characteristic of farmsteads: barn, shed and basement. Property covers an area of almost 65 acres. It is gated with a short, wooden fence. Farm yard is overgrown with grass. Within the internal picket fence, there are: a small vegetable garden, recreational space with a fireplace and a residue of the old orchard established on a square plan. In the area of the farmstead were inventoried 68 trees of 12 species. The design concept of the area around the Izba Leśna in Florianka, was based on the inspiration of a rural garden. The proposed plant compositions and landscaping elements highlight the rustic character of the space. Designers used daring colors compositions: orange with purple, yellow with blue and pink. The project includes the traditional perennials, annuals and biennial plants. Native species were selected, because of their best adaptation to the local conditions. There were designed also an utility garden, which consists of a vegetable garden and orchard, and a space conducive to relaxation and recreation. Moreover, flowery meadow was designed, in order to emphasize the connection with the nature.

Keywords: Florianka, village garden, Izba Leśna, Roztocze National Park
JEL: Y91