cover vol. 13 no. 1


Andrzej Czerny

Sustainable Development and Policies or Strategies Concerning Resources

(article in English)
Since the 1990s the term (and underlying concept  ) of sustainable development has become the aspect arising most often in discussions regarding the Earth’s fate, the management of natural resources, energy policy, the safeguarding of food security and places to live, and so on. However, ideas on the accomplishment of sustainable development assumptions have first and foremost allowed for development and strengthening of all those ecological movements able to put political pressure on the governments of different countries, with a view to their devising and implementing policy on environmental protection, as well as the instrumentation allowing effective control over the exploitation of natural resources. Analyses concerning the structure and dynamics of contemporary use of natural resources for economic purposes which came into existence in time for the Rio “Earth Summit” (i.e., in the early 1990s) made it clear that the prevention of excessive change in the natural environment – and the guaranteeing of its appropriate quality for both present and future generations would be best served if the main focus was on raw materials and their use. This rather one-sided way of thinking did in fact evolve over time, to the point where activity in the name of sustainable development has now become multifaceted, involving a wide range of entities, and extending far beyond the field of raw-materials and resources use.

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Keywords: sustainable development, natural resources, energy policy
JEL: Q00

Bogumiła Lisocka-Jaegermann

Sustainable Rural Development or (Sustainable) Rural Livelihoods?
Strategies for the 21st Century in Peripheral Regions

(article in English)
Ongoing discussions concerning the concept of development applied within the context of peripheral regions (including rural development, regional development, sustainable development, local development, etc.), and particularly its critical deconstruction, encourage us to look for new theoretical approaches and terminological constructs that would be useful in research and design of desired changes taking place in rural areas and that could substitute the contested notion of “development.” The text discusses strengths and weaknesses of “sustainable rural livelihood” — as a concept, as well as a framework of academic analysis and action — in the context of its application within “rural development” studies.

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Keywords: rural development, livelihood, rural peripheral areas
JEL: Q01, Z10

Dariusz Rakowski

Renewable Energy: a Development Opportunity for Rural Regions in Poland

(article in English)
The article presents the current situation in selected types of renewable energy and their importance for rural areas. At the moment, Poland’s energy needs are more than 85% satisfied from fossil fuel resources such as coal, oil, and natural gas. This results in serious environmental impacts and contributes to irreversible adverse effects, such as climate change due to the rise in global temperatures, greenhouse gas emissions, and air pollution. Directives and agreements of the European Union pertaining to climate change force the development in the field of renewable energy sources (RES). In this scope, the production of electricity and heat from renewable sources in rural areas creates new opportunities for the development of these areas and their local communities.

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Keywords: renewable energy, rural areas, biomass

Tomasz Podciborski, Iwona Krzywnicka

A Method for Evaluating the Peripherality of Rural Settlement Units
Based on the Principles of Spatial Order and Sustainable Development

(article in English)
The objective of this study was to propose a method for evaluating the peripherality of rural settlement units based on the principles of spatial order and sustainable development. Detailed goals involved the determination of evaluation indicators, a scoring system and evaluation principles based on the results of a questionnaire survey. The proposed method was verified on the example of three survey sites.

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Keywords: village, settlement unit, peripheral area, land management, scenic attractiveness
JEL: Q00

Danuta Guzal-Dec

Selected Problems of Sustainable Development of
Environmentally Valuable Areas of the Lublelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The overall objective of the study was to identify the problems of sustainable development of environmentally valuable areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship, as seen from the perspective of local authorities. Implementation of the adopted objective was served by the analysis of the results of research carried out in 2013 in the Lubelskie Voivodship in the 30 communes of the greatest ecological value in the Lubelskie Voivodship according to the index developed by D. Guzal-Dec within the assessment of natural value in the study of the ecological value of rural and urban-rural communes of the Lubelskie Voivodship and the analysis of documents of local development strategies of the researched communes. The study included a questionnaire survey of 383 councilors representing 86% of respondents. In light of the conducted analysis we can claim that problems of socio-economic development, such as unemployment, poverty, emigration of young people, difficulty in developing social capital, poor infrastructure — both social and technical, including roads and sewers, are still important issues of sustainable development. and environmental problems are not seen as important when compared to the essential problems of socio-economic development, as well as the small scale of direct environmental threats.

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Keywords: sustainable development, environmentally valuable areas, Lublelskie voivodship
JEL: Q56

Iwona Kiniorska, Janina Wrońska-Kiczor

Factors Affecting Sustainable Development of Agriculture and Rural Areas
in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship

(article in English)
This study aims at identifying factors encouraging sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship. It is based on the analysis of selected social, demographic, economic and environmental factors which may be useful to identify the present stage of development of rural areas (urban-rural communes and rural communes ) in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship. In order to accomplish their goal the authors used statistical data from the Bank Danych Lokalnych GUS (Local Data Bank from the Central Statistical Office of Poland ) for the years 2010 and 2012, and factual data (including reports, strategic materials ).

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Keywords: sustainable development, agriculture, rural areas
JEL: Q00

Barbara Żarska, Beata Fornal-Pieniak, Ewa Zaraś-Januszkiewicz

Shaping the Landscape of Rural Communes in the Aspect of
Green Infrastructure Creation

(article in English)
Maintenance of ecological balance and creation of green infrastructure in the landscape are important features of sustainable development. This is strictly connected and correlated with the planning of land use and spatial management. The obligation of green structure creation has a legal basis (the State, European Union and international levels ), EU development and conservation strategies and adaptation planes for climate change such as transition to a green economy. The aim was to present the needs and special approach, called the method of “ecological truss,” to landscape green structure planning in rural areas in central Poland, in Tarłów Commune, creating better possibilities to reconcile nature and biodiversity protection with land use and economic management. Creating rich green infrastructure leads to “ecologisation” of the whole area and greater harmony of landscape. It supports strong opportunities and decreases endangerments indicated in documents of local development plans. Rich green infrastructure is a tool to approach closer sustainable development and give a significant chance, especially in peripheral and underdeveloped areas, for better living conditions for local people based on permanent use of natural and cultural values of the landscape rather than degrading them.

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Keywords: rural areas, landscape planning, green infrastructure, sustainable development, Tarłów commune, Poland

Mirosław W. Meksuła, Leszek Grzechnik

Effect of Transport and Communication Connections on the Peripherality of
the Border Areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The article discusses the impact of the national border of the transport and communication accessibility of the Lubelskie Voivodship, and therefore its peripherality. The paper is based on the analysis of changes in the transport and communication infrastructure over the last century. After 1945 a unified transport system was replaced with two, almost entirely separated from each other. The political changes after 1989 had no effect on the functioning of the transport or communication system. The newly established countries, namely Belarus and the Ukraine, began functioning within the borders of the former Soviet republics, inheriting all of the features of the communication systems of the Soviet Union. Poland’s accession to the European Union and joining the Schengen Area, were significant moments for the peripherality of the discussed area. The Lubelskie Voivodship became a peripheral zone not only of Poland, but also of the European Union.

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Keywords: peripherality, border, region, communication
JEL: R11, R40, N74

Agnieszka Siedlecka

Institutions and Organizations in the Development of Organic Farms
in the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
Organic production is an important area for the development of the competitiveness of the Lubelskie Voivodship. Development of this production, however, depends on the support households can get for taking this kind of action. The aim of the study is to assess the scale and nature of institutional support in the opinion of the surveyed farmers, organic farms in the Lublin area. For the achievement of this objective, 60 interviews were conducted using a questionnaire survey among farms pursuing organic production. The obtained results indicated that institutions whose support, in the opinion of the respondents, is the highest were: Agricultural Advisory Centres, the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture, and certification bodies.

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Keywords: institution, organic production, organic farms, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: D02, D13, Q56

Magdalena Zwolińska-Ligaj

Functional Classification of Rural Areas in the Lubelskie Voivodship
Including Their Natural Values

(article in English)
The aim of the study is to determine the functional types of rural areas of the Lubelskie region and the characteristics of the functional structure depending on the value class represented by the area. In the light of the study the functional structure of rural areas of the region should be considered very diverse and dominated by units representing agricultural functions. The study revealed that the most valuable natural areas were characterized by a lower share of communes included in the agricultural and mixed functional types and a larger share of communes with a dominant forestry function and a major contribution to shaping and protection of the natural landscape and tourism.

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Keywords: multifunctional development, rural areas functions
JEL: R12

Klaudia Nowicka, Dominika Studzińska, Piotr Urbaszek

Creating Tourist Offers on the Basis of Anthropological Values.
The Example of Gospodarstwo Edukacyjno-Agroturystyczne
“Mazowiecki Zaścianek”

(article in English)
The main goal of the paper is to assess the possibility of creating a successful tourist offer in areas which are not considered attractive for tourism. In order to do so, the authors analyze the case of an agrotourism farm called “Mazowiecki Zaścianek” which is located in the small Tłuszcz Commune west of Warsaw. The research carried out in 2013 was focused not only on the tourist product of the farm and its assessment, but also on ways in which the owners of the farms were able to enter a small community and stimulate its development.

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Keywords: farm tourism, rural tourism, tourist product
JEL: L83

Joanna Szczęsna, Monika Wesołowska

Tourism as a Chance for Development of Peripheral Rural Areas
within the Eastern Part of Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The peripheral rural areas of the eastern part of the Lubelskie Voivodship are very attractive in terms of their natural and cultural environment, however, despite its various tourism resources, the region’s potential in this respect is not fully exploited. The paper presents the main tourism resources of the discussed region and indicates opportunities for using them in various forms of tourism and as potential tourism products. Furthermore, the current development level of the tourism function in the region has been identified, as well as actions aimed at improving it.

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Keywords: sustainable development, peripheral area, eastern part of Lubelskie Voivodship, tourism potential, tourism development indicator
JEL: O02

Paweł Cebrykow, Małgorzata Flaga, Mirosław Krukowski

Cartographic Image of Changes in Population Distribution
as an Indicator of Peripherality

(article in English)
The article discuss a thesis stating that the most credible “markers” of peripherality constitute indicators referring to demographic changes, particularly depopulation related to migration, the resulting decrease in the size of population, and consequently changes in the population density. Such an assumption is based on the commonly acknowledged fact that the most intensive depopulation occurs in areas distinguished by low quality and level of life resulting from restricted accessibility and a low level of socio-economic development. The presented hypothesis is verified by analysis of maps presenting demographic changes in Poland after World War II.

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Keywords: Lubelskie Voivodship, peripheral areas, depopulation, population density
JEL: J11

Krzysztof Ząbecki

The Developing World’s Depiction in the Battlefield and Call of Duty
Video Game Series. Does It Replicate the Stereotypical Image?

(article in English)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the Third World is presented in the highly popular Battlefield and Call of Duty video game series and whether the games replicate the Global South’s stereotypical image. In the introduction, the term “stereotype” is defined, countries or regions to be considered “developing” are distinguished, and the choice of video games to be examined in the study is made. Then, the content of the chosen games is analyzed in order to find elements of the environment that are represented, the sides of the depicted conflicts, their place and background, as well as playable characters and enemies. In the conclusion, the developing world’s depiction is compared to the already existing stereotypes in order to decide to what extent and in what aspects video games repeat them.

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Keywords: developing world, stereotype, video game, call of duty, battlefield
JEL: Z11

Alicja Bieske-Matejak

Thematic Parks in the Context of Rural Development in Peripheral Regions

(article in English)
Thematic parks being an element of rural land management in peripheral regions may constitute a very important factor for the development of these areas. To fulfil this task, the programmes and scope of investment of such parks should comply with the specificity of a given region. Localisation, the dimensions as well as the range of influence of thematic parks, should include natural and cultural characteristics of the potential investment area. Thesis: Small, thematic parks promoting the culture and natural values of a given region should be created in the areas which are valuable from a cultural and landscape point of view. Degraded areas may become fields of substantial investment in the thematic parks which are a culture-creating factor activating a given region and at the same time constituting an element of natural rehabilitation of a region.

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Keywords: thematic parks, natural and cultural resources protection, amusement parks, entertainment parks

Małgorzata Roge-Wiśniewska

Publicly Involved Spatial Development in the Podkarpackie Voivodship
in Poland from an Environmental Point of View

(article in English)
The paper focuses on methods used during public consultations on conditions and directions of local spatial development prepared by communes (Polish: gmina) in the Podkarpackie Voivodship. A well-executed public communication process should provide information on public preferences and concerns, as well as additional environmental information. This research has proven a hypothesis that communication techniques used by communes during studies on the conditions and directions of local spatial development differ between communes with environmentally valuable areas and those without areas of special natural value.

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Keywords: public communication, spatial planning, Podkarpackie Voivodship
JEL: R58

Ewelina Biczyńska

Measuring the Social Component of Sustainable Development in the Cities.
The Case of Medellín, Colombia

(article in English)
Sustainable development is currently a very up-to-date topic, the understanding and use of which has now gone further from its initial — environmental association. This paper is focused on one of the “youngest” kinds of sustainable development which is social sustainability. Its key elements are social inclusiveness, equality, access to education, diversity and safety, as well as good social capital — among others. As the most vague and human-related kind of sustainable development, it causes discussions on its measurement and international comparability. The example of Medellín, a Colombian city awarded for its innovativeness, is presented to discuss social sustainability measurement on the city level. This example proves that social sustainability tools are most useful when related closely with the social policies, which at the city level is fully doable.

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Keywords: sustainable development, social sustainability measurement, social capital, life standard
JEL: I32

Joanna Miętkiewska-Brynda, Jerzy Makowski

El Chinchón and Colmenar de Oreja (Spain) —
Sustainable Development in the Shadow of a Metropolis

(article in English)
The authors recall the genesis of the term of “sustainable development” and its complex evolution over the past decades until its contemporary meaning covering humans and their economy and culture, the natural environment, and the cultural landscape. The examples analysed in the text are two municipalities in the New Castile Community of Madrid (Spain) and their capitals: El Chinchón and Colmenar de Oreja, which are hidden in the shadow of Madrid and have been declining until recent times. Over the past several years, they and their surroundings have been experiencing a period of peaceful and harmonious development, which can be associated with sustainable development.

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Keywords: sustainable development, countryside, rural areas, landscape, social capital, local products
JEL: Q00

Aleksandra Godek, Marek Pietrucki

Peripheral Rural Areas around Poznań and Their Value
Measured with Economic Indicators

(article in English)
In the era of consumption — appropriation of rural areas located in the metropolitan region of Poznań it seems reasonable to estimate their material value. According to authors of publications on environmental services: Mizgajski, Lowicki, and authors discussing problems of sustainable development of rural areas in Poland, such as Kistowski, Matczak, and Myga-Piątek, the economic value of the natural environment is important from the point of view of geographical environment management, both at the local and regional level. The example of peripheral areas in the metropolitan region of Poznań serves to allow the authors of this study to present the approach of preparation of an economic card for the efficiency of agricultural space. The research objective was to present an evaluation of economic opportunities achievable with different classes of soils that are subject to subsequent transformations to a non-agricultural land use. The estimation of economic values based on indicators of costs and income from 1 ha of arable land, and their comparison to the indicators included in projections of financial results made for local spatial development plans allow determination of the actual value of rural areas which, as a result of suburbanization, were consumed by residential and economic stimulation.

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Keywords: suburbanization, sustainable development, rural areas
JEL: Q14

Krzysztof Kałamucki, Andrzej Czerny

Role of Cartographic Products in the Promotion of Tourism Based
on the Example of Roztocze

(article in English)
The technologies of development, issuing, and visualisation of maps have changed over recent years. New forms of presentation have developed. Making maps available on mobile devices considerably increases their range of users. This can be used in a broadly defined scheme of promotion. This is determined in part by the practical function of maps, the mass and common character of their use, visualisation of maps on various information carriers, as well as the multimedial and interactive character of modern electronic maps. The objective of the article is to evidence the usefulness of modern cartographic products for the promotion of tourism. The issue will be presented based on the changing functions of modern maps, and based on the example of Roztocze. Maps evoke tourists’ interest in a tourist region. They show its special values and attractions, effectively encourage visits and exploration of the region, and create its positive image. The effect of maps on their recipients is strong due to the presentation of promotional content with the application of modern forms of cartographic communication. Owing to varied cartographic products, Roztocze is promoted both in the virtual (internet) and actual space (on information boards in the field). Abundantly issued tourist maps are available throughout the country, and complement the means of promotion of tourism in the region.

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Keywords: tourist map, functions of maps, large format maps, promotion of tourism, tourist region
JEL: M37

Wioletta Kałamucka, Krzysztof Kałamucki, Małgorzata Stanicka

Areas of the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 in Roztocze

(article in English)
The Natura 2000 network includes Special Areas of Conservation SACs (habitat refuges coded PLH ) and Special Protection Areas SPA (bird refuges coded PLB). The objective of the network, covering the member states of the European Union, is the preservation of natural habitats and plant and animal species threatened with extinction on a European scale, as well as typical, commonly occurring natural habitats. Currently in Poland the Natura 2000 network covers almost 1/5 of the land surface. It includes 849 Sites of Community Importance (“habitat” areas — potential special areas of habitat conservation), and 145 special protection areas for birds. The region of Roztocze includes, entirely or in part, three bird refuges (PLB060012 Roztocze, PLB060008 Puszcza Solska, PLB060021 Dolina Sołokiji ) and 12 habitat refuges (PLH060070 Borowa Góra, PLH060003 Debry, PLH180017 Horyniec, PLH060089 Minokąt, PLH060017 Roztocze Środkowe, PLH060020 Sztolnie w Senderkach, PLH060022 Święty Roch, PLH060094 Uroczyska Lasów Adamowskich, PLH060034 Uroczyska Puszczy Solskiej, PLH060093 Uroczyska Roztocza Wschodniego, PLH060028 Zarośle, and PLH060029 Żurawce). The article presents the geographical-environmental description of the refuges of Natura 2000 in Roztocze, and point out their relations with the previously existing protected areas and subjects of protection.

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Keywords: Natura 2000, nature protection, biodiversity, Roztocze region