cover vol. 13 no. 2


Bogdan Kawałko

Poland–Belarus–Ukraine Programme in the Development Policy of Cross-Border Regions

The development of cross-border areas in Europe is an important component of European as well as national policies of individual countries. A real challenge for these actions are the regions located on the EU external eastern border, especially along the Belarusian and Ukrainian borders. It results from the geopolitical conditions, asymmetry in economic systems as well as constitutional and political differences. Such circumstances substantially restrict the ability to use the endogenous development potential. One of the aims of the EU cohesion policy is the European territorial cooperation, which intends to limit these constraints and prevent the peripheralisation of the cross-border areas. The article aims to analyze and assess the adopted policy, the use of the Cross-border Cooperation Programme Poland–Belarus–Ukraine 2007–2013 and tries to evaluate preparations for a new edition of the programme for the years 2014–2020. It addresses the good and bad sides of functioning of the instrument as well as the validity of including such issues in the aims of cohesion policy, the purpose of co-financing from the EU funds, enhancing the position and weight of territorial cooperation among the regions within the EU and outside its borders. In conclusion and recommendations it is stated that achieved results of development, which stem from the intervention in the discussed cross border area, are minimal and inadequate for the needs of the region as far as their relevance is concerned. To achieve the so called economies of scale, there is a need for greater concentration and targeting of the intervention as well as a programme with visibly increased scope of financing by the European Commission.

Keywords: cross-border areas, territorial cooperation, European Commission, Poland-Belarus-Ukraine Programme, regional development
JEL: F2, R1

Jacek Rodzinka, Tomasz Skica

The Concept of Clustering and Benefits of Functioning as Part of a Cluster

(article in English)
The progress in the social and economic reality surrounding us regarding the identification of factors determining the competitiveness of enterprises has naturally led the discussion concerning new areas of economic practice. The concept of clustering and the development policy (both local and supra-local) based on clustering (cluster-based policy or cluster-oriented policy) have been gaining a wider and wider group of proponents. The first part of an article includes the benefits of attending in cluster. In the next part we presented directions of support for clusters in Poland. Finally, in the last part of an article we showed the directions and assumptions of Polish cluster policy until 2020.

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Keywords: clusters, the cluster initiative, concept of clustering
JEL: O1, O2, O18

Tomasz Skica, Ulyana Dzyuma-Zaremba, Joanna Hady

Clusters in Regional Politics

The purpose of this article is to review the impact of models of cluster structures on the regional development. First, will be presented models of cluster structures and prepared a statement of aspects of cluster model based on examples which allowing an objective assessment of the degree of effectiveness of individual solutions. Research studies presents that the functioning of the cluster is related to a number of potential benefits gained by involved in the cluster companies as well as they show a positive ratio of clusters in regional development, which will be analyzed in the following parts of the article.

Keywords: regional politics, cluster structures
JEL: O1, O3, R11

Jacek Rodzinka, Małgorzata Leśniowska, Aleksandra Wojnarowska-Dygdoń

Vision of the Cross-Border Zeolitic Tuff Cluster

(article in English)
The natural consequence of observed changes and trends in the macroeconomic scale include formation of the clusters. Nowadays, clustering is an increasingly more popular form of business organization, and it is becoming more significant from year to year. In Poland, clusters are relatively new forms of self-organization business, which are supported by the administrative authorities, and is based on mutual cooperation between entrepreneurs or producers and development research units on a specific area. The aim of the project carried out by University of Management and Administration in Zamość entitled “Description of an innovative model of cross-border application of zeolitic tuffs” was establishment of a functioning institutionalized cooperation networks in the form of a cross-border zeolitic tuff cluster on a Polish-Ukrainian cross-border area. The objective of this article is to present mission and vision of the Cross-border Zeolitic Tuff Cluster. Mainly, the authors focus on a various possibilities of application of zeolitic tuffs and main areas of functioning of the cluster. On this basis, authors described strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of functioning of the Cross-border Zeolitic Tuff Cluster and proposed the development trends of cluster.

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Keywords: clusters, the cluster initiative, the Cross-border Zeolitic Tuff Cluster
JEL: F43, F63

Jacek Rodzinka, Tomasz Skica

The Cross-Border Zeolitic Tuff Cluster Development Strategy

(article in English)
The development strategy is a kind of plan — a composite document specifying basic development trends of entity or group of entities, which at the same time takes into account the potential of the entities for which the strategy is implemented and the possibility of development as well, which gives economic and social environment. Necessary activity, which organization needs to realize, organization which has already worked out and accepted vision of development, is a skillfully translate into concrete actions from an operational character, namely the creation of the operational plan. It is build based on methods like: Management by Objectives or Balance Scorecard. In this paper, it was presented development strategy of the Cross Border Cluster of Zeolitic Tuffs. In first part, were presented general and partial goals of cluster developed during the strategic diagnosis, then there was prepared Balance Scorecard for a cluster, as a tool for creating a cluster strategy. In the next part of the article, were included strategic matrices for individual areas. The article concludes developed plan of action for the cluster for the coming period.

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Keywords: the cluster initiative, cluster development strategy, regional development, regional policy
JEL: O1, O3

Ilona Petryk

Identification of Business Processes in Integrated Structures

(article in English)
The article describes the historical development of the concept of business process, the views of scientists and economists who have studied the issue is analyzed. Key characteristics of the categories of business processes were analyzed, and the typology concept definitions by different authors were researched. The prospects for further research are shown. Structure of the business process and its typical components are described. The classification of business processes, the potential contents and design of processes are given. The business process life cycle of a typical enterprise is analyzed.

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Keywords: enterprise, business process, firm life cycle

Tomasz Szul

Prosumer Energy — a Benefit or Loss for Beneficiaries in the Light of the Act on Renewable Sources of Energy

(article in English)
For selected photovoltaic installations generating 3 and 10 kW power, operating in the on-grid system, the amount of electric power that can be generated has been calculated. Next, business analysis has been conducted based on static and dynamic methods, such as: SPBT, PBP, NPV, IRR and CCE. Calculations were made for three options — i.e., the system investment costs are born in their entirety by the investor, or the installation is purchased in the framework of the “Prosument” programme run by the National Fund for Environment Protection and Water Management. As a result of the calculations made it has been found that despite support instruments and attractive purchase prices of the energy generated, the electric power generation is not profitable with the current level of investment expenditure for the construction of such an installation if we take into considerations the running and depreciation costs. Taking advantage of the 40% investment co-financing in the 10 kW “Prosumer” programme will enable only to minimise losses.

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Keywords: prosumer energy, photovoltaic micro-installation, renewable energy sources, business analysis
JEL: O13

Taras Shumilin, Bogdan Tershak

Wave Treatment of Oil Emulsions of Prykarpattya in Order to Decrease Oil Losses

(article in English)
The object of research of this work is to improve the technology of oil decrease losses during oil collection, preparation and transporting in the Prykarpattya region (west Ukraine) deposits at the action of low intensity wave field. The laboratory researches of influence of the wave field of different intensity and frequency on stabilizing of oils of region with the aim of their decrease losses were conducted. Ultrasonic treatment of emulsions was conducted with the use of magnetostrictor radiator with the aim of degassing and deemulsation of oil emulsions of different kind for oil decrease losses. Laboratory researches determined that application of wave treatment on oils deposits of Prykarpattya can be an effective alternative to chemical treatment.

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Keywords: technological oil losses, low intensity wave field, Prykarpattya, Ukraine
JEL: O1, O3

Abstracts of Articles read at international scientific conference “Zeolites in agriculture, environmental protection and building,” 26-27 February 2015, Lublin, Poland