cover vol. 13 no. 3


Joanna Rakowska

Exploratory Study on Absorption and Investment of European Union Structural Funds 2007–2013
by NUTS 2 Level Self-Governments in Poland

(article in English)
The article provides information on geographical distribution of European Union structural funds among Polish regions (voivodships) analyzing it from various points of view: various kinds of funds, their purposes, amount per inhabitant, as well as the value, structure and types of investments co-financed from EU structural funds obtained by regional authorities — i.e., Voivodship Self-governments under Operational Programmes 2007–2013, as of 31 December 2014.

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Keywords: operational programmes 2007–2013 in Poland, NUTS 2 self-governments
JEL: R500, R530, R580

Anna Lewandowska, Elżbieta Inglot-Brzęk

European Integration of Ukraine: the Perspective of Ukrainians and Poles

(article in English)
Despite the fact that discussions have focused on the Association Agreement and resolving the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine as a turning point in EU-Ukraine relations, we look at the European integration of Ukraine from the perspective of public opinion. This is important because public opinion is one of the most important EU factors that may affect European integration and Europeanization processes in the EU countries. This article provides among other aspects the answer to the question: What are the positive and negative effects of the integration of Ukraine into the EU, in the opinion of Polish entrepreneurs?

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Keywords: Ukraine, European Union, European integration, entrepreneurship
JEL: F02, F15, N44, L26

Piotr Zawrotniak

The Cross-Border Transfer of Cultural Assets in the European Union

(article in English)
Monuments and mementoes of cultural assets are taken very special care of by descendant heirs, as a form of national heritage. The Hague Convention of 1954 introduced regulations concerning the definition of a cultural asset. The Convention drawn up in Paris, in 1970, extended the scope of international legal protection in case of conflicts and armaments. It also extended notions which regulate the status of — e.g., rare collections. In 1976, the Convention signed in Paris clarified identification and definition of any kind of assets belonging to the countries which are the parties of the agreement, and determined their borders. The member states of the EU act pursuant to the regulations of the EU law and domestic law. After the accession to the Community, Poland adopted the EU law, which has to be direct and superior to domestic regulations. The EU and domestic legal regulations concerning the issue of the transfer of cultural assets — monuments within the Community and with third countries, are applicable to their export to other member states of the EU and within not regulated areas on the Community level, as well as to third countries.

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Keywords: Cultural assets, Hague Convention of 1954, National cultural heritage, Monuments, Paris Convention of 1970, Rare collections, Paris Convention of 1976, The European Union law, The office of Monument Conservator, Turnover of cultural assets, The trade of works of art in the EU, Minister of Culture and National Heritage, Community Customs Code
JEL: K39, Z11

Izabela Dąbrowska

Migration Flows form New Member States and the Prospect of
Britain’s Withdrawal from the European Union

(article in English)
Ever since the European Union expanded to admit first eights Central and Eastern European countries in 2004, and then two more in 2007, internal migration has become a major social and political matter especially in Britain, which is one of the main destinations for thousands of migrants. This article builds on the body of data provided by British national institutions to examine the kingdom’s economic interests in revising its own deal in European migration policy. It presents the contemporary concerns with migrants’ flows from new member states in the wider perspective of Britain’s complex relationship with Europe and its own contested integration with the Union. The paper’s main objective though is to argue whether questioning the existing integration principles, including the principle of free movement, is justified or whether it has just become a convenient matter in the discussion on Britain’s likely withdrawal from the organization in 2017.

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Keywords: the European Union, European principles, migration to Britain, British withdrawal

Włodzimierz Karaszewski, Małgorzata Jaworek, Maria Kola-Bezka, Marcin Kuzel

European Union Funds in the Financial Framework 2014–2020
in the Process of Building Competitive Capacity among the Communes of
the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The aim of this article is to present the plans of the communes of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship identified in the course of the survey regarding their use of EU funds for building their competitive capacity and pursuing their strategic development objectives in the period 2014–2020. The study helped to identify the expected results of the use of EU funds in the financial framework 2014–2020 by the communes of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship as well as the importance of these funds for the implementation of these communes’ development strategies. The results show that the communes intend to actively seek financial resources made available to Poland for the implementation of the cohesion policy in the period 2014–2020 and use them to achieve the objectives set out in their development strategies. Expectations of the communes regarding the outcomes that they expect to achieve as a result of the implementation of the projects co-financed by the EU, however, seem inadequate when compared to the actual opportunities that these operational programmes create in terms of the implementation of investment projects in 2014–2020. This raises concerns that these resources will not be utilized as efficiently as expected.

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Keywords: regional competitiveness, EU funds, the financial framework 2014–2020, communes of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship
JEL: R110

Andrzej Miszczuk

Directions of Development of Tourism
in the Polish-Ukrainian Cross-Border Area
in the New European Union Programming Period (2014–2020)
in the Context of Regional Planning Documents

(article in English)
The objective of the article is to present the state and directions of the development of tourism in the Polish-Ukrainian cross-border area covering the Lubelskie and Podkarpackie voivodships and the Lviv and Volyn Oblasts in the context of regional strategic documents prepared in the scope of the new EU perspective for the years 2014–2020. In spite of the lack of a uniform strategic document for the purposes of development of the entire cross-border area in the years 2014–2020, the area is considered in development strategies of Polish voivodships and in related documents. In the case of the Lubelskie Voivodship, it is the cross-border cooperation strategy, and in the case of the Podkarpackie Voivodship — subregional strategic programmes. All of these documents consider tourism, including the specification of the objectives, priorities, and directions of activities, and even proposed projects. The content of these documents can provide a good basis for the development of modern tourism products at the local, regional, and cross-border level, with a potential to stimulate tourist traffic in the cross-border area. Possible support from the EU resources in the new financial perspective 2014–2020 is important for these types of activities.

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Keywords: Polish-Ukrainian cross-border area, tourism, development strategy
JEL: R58

Stanisław W. Ceran

Information Technologies for Development of Specific Regions of Poland
in Assessment of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Method

(article in English)
The article presents the role of information technologies in the process of development of the economically weak regions of Poland. The state and the dynamics of the process of information technologies, in relation with the digitization, mobility and cloud computing processing trends in the areas of public administration and economics as well as functioning of individual households show vast diversification in those areas. The aim is formulating an answer to the question concerning the efficiency of the solutions being introduced in the area of public administration and the level of the IT implementation within the range of the basic economic activities, as well as the services provided to the inhabitants. The state of completion of the regional programs, the national strategies for IT implementation, the Digital Agenda for Europe as well as infrastructural investments are subject to assessment with use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. An important part of the process is the factor of user willingness to adopt the technologies, skills and competences necessary for their effective use and that problem was assessed with utilization of the comparison method.

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Keywords: computerization, digitization, analytic hierarchy process, outermost regions
JEL: C44, A32, R11

Tomasz Szul

Comparison of Methods in the Definition of Home Energy Characteristics
in the Context of the European Union Directives

(article in English)
Energy characteristics were estimated for an exemplary single-family detached house on the basis of four calculation methods (according to the Directive 2010/31/EU on energy characteristics of detached houses) such as: the method based on the actually consumed amount of energy, the method based on the actually consumed amount of energy calculated for the standard weather conditions and the calculation method compatible with methodology from 2009 with its newest version of 2014 as well. Then the comparison analysis of the method based on the energy actually consumed with the calculation methods for the standard weather conditions was conducted. While comparing needs for final energy for building heating, one can notice a great discrepancy between values of relative errors of estimation. The value of estimation error in comparison with the total energy consumption for heating and preparing hot usable water amounts to 70% if you compare it to the calculation method (according to the methodology of 2014) with the actual energy consumption, whereas 36% if compared to the conversion conditions. The application of calculation models contained in the methodology of 2008 gives better results, because the estimating error is from 38% (compared with the actual energy consumption) to 11% (compared with real consumption taking into consideration the standard conditions). The method used to determine the characteristics will depend on whether the house meets the criteria in rules concerning minimal demands indicating the unit need for initial energy IE max. If the energy characteristics certificate is made on the basis of the method based on the real energy quantity consumption, it will show that a house will fulfill demands, while in the case where energy characteristics will be prepared based on calculation method compatible with the methodology of 2014 the house won’t fulfill demands and it won’t be accepted. If you want to accept as objective the proposed methodology of fulfilling energy certificates, energy characteristics defined on the actual consumed quantity of energy should include a notation of the need to calculate results for the conditions of the standard season.

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Keywords: methodology of energy characteristics definition, real energy consumption, final energy, the heating season number of days counting for decreases of heat
JEL: R15, Q47

Adam Senetra, Monika Wasilewicz-Pszczółkowska, Elżbieta Grzelak-Kostulska

The European Landscape Convention as a Tool for the Protection,
Management and Planning of Landscapes

(article in English)
Landscape protection and planning have attracted the attention of experts in many branches of science and industry. The growing interest in landscape management reflects concerns over environmental degradation that deteriorates the quality of life. Undesirable landscape changes result mostly from civilizational development, inappropriate land use and spatial planning. Further adverse landscape transformations should be prevented at local, regional and national levels. On 24 June 2004, Poland ratified the European Landscape Convention (ELC), which was opened for signature in 2000 in Florence (Italy ). The ratifying countries have committed themselves to enhance the quality of local landscapes which are the basic components of Europe’s natural and cultural heritage. Despite several attempts that resulted in the development of preliminary analytical reports, the Convention has not been implemented in Poland to date. For the Convention to be implemented, landscapes on Polish territory have to be identified and assessed. A systemized approach to landscape evaluation can provide a basis for creating landscape maps. This paper discusses selected methodological assumptions underlying landscape classification (typology ) and quality assessment, which could be used in the implementation process. The proposed method for assessing the esthetic value of landscape may become an integral part of landscape auditing, which is an important legal aspect of implementing the Convention. A landscape audit involves the identification of priority landscapes of particularly high scenic value.

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Keywords: landscape, landscape protection, landscape development, landscape auditing, European Landscape Convention
JEL: Q51

Marcin Połom

European Union Funds as a Growth Stimulant of Electromobility
on the Example of Electric Public Transport in Poland

(article in English)
Urban electromobility is becoming a significant idea in shaping transport systems, in particular in towns and cities. The growth of urban areas and the lack of opportunities to develop road infrastructure at the same time as well as the impact of transport on the environment imposes on the national and local governments an obligation to develop a conscious regulation of transport policy with a focus on collective electric transport. The paper presents differentiation in spatial distribution of EU funds for electrified urban transport, broken down by city and state, and the extent of the variety of EU expenditure on electric transport.

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Keywords: public transport, electromobility, European Union funds, sustainable development
JEL: R42

Adam Zydroń, Anna Zbierska, Piotr Szczepański

The Effect of Nature Conservation Legal Instruments
on Spatial Management in a Commune

(article in English)
The aim of the study was to analyse the dependence between nature conservation instruments and the percentage of land covered by local spatial development plans and to assess the effect of conservation areas on the type of spatial management in a commune. The material for the analyses comprised local spatial development plans, an administrative decision concerning terms of construction and land management (the WZiZT decision) and administrative decisions on location of public purpose investment projects (LPP decisions) issued in the years 2004–2012. Based on the Mosina commune (in Wielkopolskie Province) an analysis was conducted on land allocated to individual land use forms in spatial development plans as well as their distribution in relation to existing land surface conservation areas. The study investigated the issue of whether the current spatial planning approach at the commune level covering all land within the boundaries of conservation areas with spatial development plans ensures rational spatial management.

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Keywords: spatial planning, nature conservation areas, commune
JEL: R58, K32, Q56

Mieczysław Kowerski, Małgorzata Wolańczyk, Mariusz Poninkiewicz

A Proposition for a Methodology to Assess the Influence of
European Union Funds on Living Conditions among Citizens of a Commune

(article in English)
In this paper a two phase methodology to assess the influence of the European Union funds on living conditions among citizens of a commune was proposed. During the first the total index of living conditions in a given commune during a specific time period is calculated. During the second phase econometric logit models of the dependence of the total index on the share of the EU funds invested in a given commune are constructed. The developed methodology has been illustrated with calculations concerning the small, rural commune Zarzecze from the Podkarpackie Voivodship during the years 2003–2013.

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Keywords: total and partial indexes of living conditions, European Union funds, econometric models of living conditions
JEL: C22, H72, I38, R51

Jarosław Bielak

Inflation, CPI, and Real Price Changes in Poland
(specifically in Lubelskie Voivodship) in the Years 2002–2014

(article in English)
Inflation rate, Consumer Price Index, real price changes and the cost of living change perceived by people are sometimes reported to be significantly different. In this paper the analysis of these measures and goods and services price changes in Poland, in Lubelskie Voivodship in particular — in the years 2002–2014 — is conducted. The study is based on data published by Central Statistical Office of Poland and Narodowy Bank Polski . The results show a gap between officially published CPI and the inflation rate perceived by inhabitants who see inflation mainly from the angle of the prices of essential goods which they purchase every day.

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Keywords: inflation, CPI, Poland, lubelskie, consument sentiment, ShadowStats, Chapwood Index
JEL: E31

Dominik Dąbrowski, Marek Kuźmicki

The Influence of Occupational Activity on Leisure Time of the Disabled People Who Live in the Rural Areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
In most societies disabled people constitute a group with the lowest level of activity of occupational activity as well as organization of leisure time. These two dimensions in a very essential way influence each other depending on socio-demographic characteristics. In the case of disabled people vocational activity fulfils not only an economic function but also holds essential functions of rehabilitation and integration. Making proper use of free time has even greater influence on progress in rehabilitation, especially in the social sphere. This study aimed at examining the participation in leisure activities among disabled people in Lubelskie Voivodship in the context of occupational activity.

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Keywords: leisure time, vocational activeness, disability
JEL: E24, I1, J2, L82, L83

Justyna Gabryszuk, Żanna Król, Paweł Postek, Heronim Olenderek

Analysis of Differences in the Area of Forest Land Disclosed
in the Local Data Bank and the Register of Land and Buildings

(article in English)
The aim of the study was to demonstrate differences in the areas of forest land disclosed in two registers. For the analysis four land registration units in two neighbouring administrative districts were adopted. Analysis of forest land area data compared in two databases showed significant differences. The comparison was made for the databases of the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office of Poland (BDL) containing statistical data and for the land and buildings registry containing data that constitute the basis for tax calculation.

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Keywords: area of forests, Database of the Register of Land and Buildings (EGIB), Local Data Bank of Central Statistical Office of Poland (BDL), District of Łęczna, District of Świdnik
JEL: Q23

Barbara Gradziuk, Piotr Gradziuk

Foreign Trade of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Poland
in the Years 2008–2014

(article in English)
The obligation of renewable energy production and the opportunities for additional large revenue from green certificates has led to an increased interest in biomass derived from imports. During the period under study, imports of biomass to Poland increased nearly eight times: from 423 thousand tons to 3 591 thousand tons. Agro biomass imports showed higher dynamics (1160%), including in particular sunflower husks and sunflower and palm oil cake. During the same period, imports of forest biomass increased by 478%, of mainly firewood and wood chips. By 2007, the vast majority of imported biomass had come from the current European Union countries (nearly 50%, the highest amounts from Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia and Germany), and the structure of imports was divided roughly evenly into agro and forestry sourced biomass. The introduction of mandatory restrictions on the use of forest biomass resulted in a significant increase in non-forest biomass share in the total imports of biomass, which have also significantly increased from year to year. In the last three years, agro biomass imports from the EU and Ukraine have accounted for almost 65% of total imports of biomass for energy purposes. A dramatic increase has also been observed in the imports of exotic biomass, although in relatively small absolute values: from 0 in 2009 to about 65 thousand tonnes in 2010 and 2011, and to more than 600 thousand tonnes in 2014.

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Keywords: renewable energy sources, biomass, foreign trade
JEL: Q42, Q47

Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko, Bogdan Kościk

Assessment of the Ecological and Energy Awareness of
the Citizens in Rural Communes

(article in English)
This study was performed due to a concept of building a biogas network connecting two agricultural biogas plants. It was concerned with the ecological and energy awareness amongst the citizens of two communes located in the Lubelskie Voivodship. Moreover, their interest in being connected to the local biogas network has been studied. The interviewees declared that they are familiar with different sources of energy. Solar energy was the most well-known. It has been noted that the level of information about how agricultural biogas plants operate is low, which is known both from verbal expressions and the responses to questions concerning inhabitants’ interest in becoming connected to the network. The citizens are afraid of burdens resulting from producing biogas, mostly the unpleasant smells. It has been noticed that most of the decisions upon which the environmental attitude may be assessed stem from the economic reasons. The need to raise the level of knowledge about producing biogas and using it as energy is very high.

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Keywords: biogas network, ecological awareness
JEL: Q42, Q56, R22

Joanna Świerk,Magdalena Mulawa

The Balanced Scorecard for Higher Education —
the Case of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University

(article in English)
The Balanced Scorecard originated by Kaplan and Norton translates strategy into tangible and measurable objectives in four perspectives: financial, customer, internal business process, learning and growth. These perspectives can be modified, extended and adapted to the specific characteristics of company. This popular and modern management tool is used to clarify strategy, vision, and mission. It enables executives to realize their strategy in the most effective way. In contemporary times, the Balanced Scorecard is gaining popularity and has an ever increasing number of applications in the areas of benchmarking, budgeting, Total Quality Management or cost management. Nowadays it is more and more often implemented in the management of universities. The article presents the example of developing the Balanced Scorecard model at Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin.

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Keywords: Balanced Scorecard, strategic planning, management, higher education
JEL: O21

Jan Andreasik

Ontology Concept of Occupation Health and Safety System

The article presents an ontology concept of occupation health and safety system (OHS). The functional model has been chosen which is analogical to FRAM model (Functional Resonance Analysis Method) designed by Erik Hollangel. Five types of functions has been defined: information function, signalling function, observation function, reaction of safety system function. Relations between parameters of functions has been defined, which with the functions create a semantic web of occupational health and safety system.

Keywords: ontology of occupational health and safety system, functions of occupational health and safety system, Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), Workplace health and safety (WHS)