cover vol. 13 no. 4

Abstracts

Kazimierz Górka, Marcin Łuszczyk

How Many States within a State? Essential Dilemma of
the Contemporary Development Policy

In the study an attempt to justify choice of the social market economy as the appropriate economic system for contemporary Poland was made. According to the authors, in the social-economic current situation no other order will ensure the economic success in a long time. One should however pay special attention so that in the Polish economic policy a so-called emotional-national approach doesn't dominate named only, on the legal validity of constitutional regulations, with social market economy. It will be supporting the social-economic development, based on ordoliberal principles and market economy fitted to the contemporary social reality — similarly how, it took place in Germany in the period when Ludwig Erhard governed the country.

Keywords: economic policy, ordoliberalism, public finance
JEL: B20, E60, O10

Marek W. Kozak

Between Old and New Paradigm: Challenges for Polish Regions 2014–2020

This text is devoted to cohesion policy changes and consequences it has for the Polish regions. It assumes that neither European Union nor cohesion policy will cease to exist. Main hypothesis says that since 2010 the unsuccessful attempts to move from old to new paradigm (introduction of more horizontal approach, conditionality, principle of partnership and multilevel governance, MLG ) have taken place, but in vain. It is the programming period 2014–2020 that seriously introduces changes, which may meet threats to a large extent stemming from knowledge about economy and development’ limitations and from lessons learned after accession. As a result we can see high skills to European funds disbursement rather than development objectives attaining. Article analyses directions, character and causes of changes, results for Poland and its regions and formulates conclusions.

Keywords: paradigm, development factors, regions, challenges
JEL: R11, R58, H54

Agnieszka Rzeńca

TPartnership for the Sake of the Sustainable Development
in the New Programming Period—Opportunities and Threats

New challenges that are posed to local government in the scope of resource-efficient and low-emission economy oblige local authorities to take a lot of new initiatives for the sake of efficient territorial management and control of the processes of its development. A crucial factor is building and reinforcing institutional partnership and gaining active and diverse participants of the development processes of territorial units in order to accomplish the established goals. The programming period 2014–2020 creates real opportunities to build real partnership in the scope of sustainable development, particularly in the functional areas such as metropolitan areas. A new instrument of the development policy dedicated to these areas is Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI). The purpose of the article is therefore to identify the conditions of partnership building for the sake of the sustainable development in the new programming period and indicating the opportunities and threats. The case study is Łódź Metropolitan Area.

Keywords: Cpartnership, integrated planning, sustainable development, metropolitan area, Integrated Territorial Investment
JEL: Q01, Q56, R58, O18, O21

Zbigniew Przygodzki

Territorial Capital in Integrated Regional Development Planning

Place-based policy is a new approach to the implementation of regional policy. Its fundamental premise consists in using place-based tangible and intangible resources, which are referred to as the territorial capital, in the development policy. The notion of territorial capital has been explored on theoretical grounds and is also very much promoted among regional policy practitioners. However, still the principal difficulty in effective efforts and implementation in this area results from poor operability of proposed definitions. Although territorial capital is a notion that escapes applicable definitions, as it is an extremely complex category, nevertheless attempts made by local governments to implement postulates of place-based policy to promote best practices are interesting. On top of that, the author, based on the conclusions from his own research conducted using the participant observation method, proposes typologies of approaches to the implementation of integrated development planning in Poland making reference to the idea of territorial capital at the territorial self-government level.

Keywords: territorial capital, place-based policy, regional development
JEL: R11

Andrzej Graczyk

Implementation Opportunities of Market-Orientated Solutions of
Ecological Policy within the Framework of the Energy Security Strategy
and the Environment

This article aims to analyze and evaluate the tasks provided for in the Strategy for Energy Security and Environment. The subject of evaluation is the ability to use market-oriented solutions of ecological policy. In the first part they are discussed the relationship between the Strategy objectives and economic and market instruments. The second part analyses and evaluates the activities proposed in the Strategy. The chance to introduce market-oriented solutions to ecological policy is evaluated. In the third section there are presented proposals for the use of market solutions for selected activities. The actions proposed in the draft of strategy enables the introduction of market-oriented solutions in the ecological policy. Three areas were selected to implement market solutions. These are: water management and water protection, biodiversity and waste protection.

Keywords: ecological policy, strategy, market-oriented instruments
JEL: Q58

Justyna Ziobrowska

Strategy "Sprawne Państwo 2020" and the Current Problems of
the State in Poland

The purpose of this article is to analyze the efficiency of the public sector in Poland and describe the strategy “Sprawne Państwo 2020,” whose implementation in 2013-2020 may provide a solution to the current problems of the state. Article is divided into two parts. The first one is the general condition of the public institutions (public administration) and the ratio of citizens to their functioning in Poland. In the next part of the specific objectives were described strategy of “Sprawne Państwo 2020” and selected activities that are underway or completed in the framework of the strategy in 2013. and 2014. The author in his study used a method of analysis and criticism of literature, statistical and research documents.

Keywords: polity, administration, The EU strategy
JEL: H00

Barbara Kryk

Implementation of the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship Development Strategy and Quality of Life as a Display Effectiveness of Public Strategic Management

A local government to ensure proper development of the region and quality of life of residents should properly manage the region. Therefore plays an important role public strategic management, which should be effective. For this reason hypothesized research is, that realization of aims of region development strategy and increase the quality of life testify to the effectiveness of strategic management. The hypothesis was verified by analysis the implementation of the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship Development Strategy and changes in the level of objective quality of life. In this article were used desk research, taxonomic and descriptive analysis and deduction.

Keywords: public strategic management, strategy development, quality of life, region
JEL: I30, O10, O20

Teresa Korbutowicz

Regional Aid for Undertakings in Lower Silesia

Regional aid in Lower Silesia granted to undertakings submits to rules of state aide EU and integration aims. The reform of state aid rules resulted in increased number of permissions to grant the horizontal aid, especially regional aid. In Lower Silesia regional aid were granted for new investments, employment, research and development, ad hoc aid and aid for creation of the business service sector. Wrocław has become an important location for business service sector. This town is only one metropolitan area with the largest number of research and development centers.

Keywords: state aids, regional aids, ad hoc aids, business service sector
JEL: H2, K2, R1

Mariusz Zieliński

The Use of Labor Resources and the Liquidity of the Labor Market on a Regional Basis in the Period 2008–2013, with Elements of Forecast for 2020

Possibilities of development of individual regions depend on the available resources, including labor resources. Article concerns the comparison of the situation on the regional labor markets in Poland in the years 2008 and 2013, among others, in terms of their liquidity. Article attempts to answer two research questions: What is the situation on regional labor markets in the period of economic slowdown (2013) compared to the period of the boom (2008)? As far as the situation in the individual regional labor markets will change under the influence of demographic change for 2020? Statistical data from the Statistical Yearbooks of Regions show that in 2013, with low economic growth performed an employer's market, characterized by low liquidity. Due to the demographic situation will change by 2020, when labor resources can become a barrier to growth in most regions in Poland.

Keywords: regional labor market, liquidity of labor market, demographic change, employment
JEL: J11, J21, J23, R11

Anna Jasińska-Biliczak

Self-Employment Problem — the Role and Place of Microenterprises
in Regional Economy

Article’s aim is undertaking the issue of the self-employment as the peculiar form of business activity made exclusively personally by the owner of the enterprise and its conditioning. There also will be discussed this form of the business activity as the sources of innovations, engine of economic and social changes and places where individualists can find employment. There will be indicated the self-employment’s place in the sector of small and medium enterprises and the regional economy as well. For achievement of this aim there will be used the literature review from the scope of the local economy and the small and medium-entrepreneurship as well as undertaking the problem of the self-employment. The legislation being in force, documents of bodies of the European Union as well as documents attesting to the importance of the problem, so as parliamentary questions will be indicated (desk research). There was undertaken the analysis of data corresponding to the self-employment in Opolskie Voivodship having as the aim pointing the problem (data analysis).

Keywords: self-employment, own business activity, small and medium-enterprises, regional economy
JEL: H00, K00, O00

Łukasz Mach

Analysis of the Potential Residential Infrastructure and its Impact on
Balanced Regional Development with Particular Emphasis on
RPO WO 2014–2020

This paper presents the research process aimed at parameterization potential residential infrastructure. Implementation of the research process was conducted in several stages, in which the most important are the following: identification of diagnostic variables, through the process of multidimensional linear ordering, calculating the dynamics of change, development potentials of the sub-matrix and matrix influence and impact. The result of the research is to identify regions of the strong and the weak position of the ranking and the high and low dynamics change. Identification of the level of development of individual regions, will allow for a comprehensive view of the level of development of our country in the area of residential infrastructure.

Keywords: infrastructure, residential, regional development
JEL: R31, R11, R58

Alicja Kolasa-Więcek

The Current State of Renewable Energy Development in the Opolskie Voivodship

The share of electricity from renewable sources in the general consumption of electricity in the Opole province is more than 9%. In the Opole province a series of renewable sources of energy investments are planned, in particular the wind turbines construction. It will also be implemented different eco-energy investments, including the biogas plants, photovoltaic and water constructions. The article presents the current state of development of renewable energy sources in the region and their potential.

Keywords: renewable energy resources, Opolskie Voivodship, wind energy, water energy, biomass, geothermal energy, sun energy
JEL: Q42

Stanisław Krawiec, Anna Bereś

Network Cooperation Influence on Development of Innovation in Business with New Perspective of the Structural Funds for 2014–2020

During the time of the economy intensive development, technological progress, innovation dynamics the development of networking is quite visible. The common ground to strengthen cooperation between enterprises, research units and other entities being a part of the network cooperation are research and development works and the need to marked developed innovations. The cooperation between business and the science sector is also an integral factor to obtain support for cluster coordinators and support for a wide range of development process activities for cluster initiatives with grant from the new financial perspective 2014–2020.

Keywords: innovations, research and development works, clusters, network cooperation, grants, founds
JEL: O30

Tomasz Odzimek

Aspects of Effective Government of Knowledge-Transfer in the Business-University-Administration Cooperation in the Context of Local Economy

The goal of the article is presentation of local authority activity as a part of cooperation between universities and enterprises. The first part of the article includes specifically the motivating role of local authorities, which influences the local academics and scientists in the work to be active and efficient in cooperation with local enterprises in order to transfer of knowledge. The second part concerns some of good examples of motivating activity of local authorities as a part of triple helix in academic cities. This part of the article includes also own studies and research of official documents about motivating activity, especially followed 20 academic cities. These examples could be used of the local authorities in the creating of framework of triple helix, especially stimulating the local transfer of knowledge between scientists and entrepreneurs.

Keywords: triple helix cooperation, transfer of knowledge, motivating activity
JEL: H89, O2, O3

Sławomir Olko

Instruments Supporting Creative Clusters in Poland and Europe

The paper presents the general analysis of exiting instruments supporting creative clusters using described information about existing public support for clusters. Instruments for supporting clusters are the direct consequence of innovation policy and cluster policy realized on the EU, national and regional level. Because its specificity creative cluster needs specific instruments of support adapted to the methods of knowledge management in the cluster and activities carried out by the cluster. In the new programming period (2014–2020) varied forms of support have been provided, involving directly and indirectly creative clusters.

Keywords: innovation policy, cluster policy, clusters, creative industries
JEL: O32, R11

Justyna Zygmunt

Entrepreneurship as a Factor of Regional Development

(article in English)
The main goal of this paper is to characterize the level of entrepreneurship in the Opolskie Voivodship. The structure of the paper consists of two parts. First one contains the results of literature studies on entrepreneurship as a factor of regional development while second part includes the results of empirical research on entrepreneurship in the Voivodship in question for period 2002–2014.

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Keywords: entrepreneurship, regional development, Opolskie Voivodship, natural persons running economic activities, microenterprises
JEL: D83, R11, R58

Daniel Butyter

The Role of Transport Sector for Trade between Eastern Partnership Countries and Poland

The market of transport services is an integral part of the regional economy. The correctness of functioning of this market determines the effectiveness and efficiency of the entire economic system of the country, the regions and cooperation between states. This article aims to determine the impact of the transport market in countries belonging to the Eastern Partnership (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) on trade between these countries and Poland. Analysis of the transport market in the countries of the Partnership and data about the value of goods and services transported by various means of transport between the countries of the Partnership and Poland has allowed to conclude that poorly developed transport infrastructure in the countries of the Eastern Partnership contributes to inhibit trade between Poland and these countries.

Keywords: Poland, Eastern Partnership, Transport infrastructure, market of transport services
JEL: F20, O18, R40

Aleksandra Zygmunt

Family Businesses as a Determinant of Region’s Sustainable Development

(article in English)
The main aim of the article is to highlight the significance of family businesses in regional development balancing. At first, the special attention was put on issues related to the sustainable development of regions. In this respect, it has been indicated key assumptions of sustainable development policy according to the European Union, and Polish actions in this area included in the National Development Strategy 2020, the National Regional Development Strategy 2010–2020 and the Long-term National Development Strategy. Next, it was made considerations concentrated on the determinants of regional development balancing. Particular attention was focused on endogenous determinants, which characterize important role in region’s sustainable development. Among them special place constitute the region’s competitiveness. The results of the literature research indicate that in this area a key role may play family businesses due to their specific nature and importance in the economy. As a result, family businesses should be regarded as an essential endogenous component of region’s sustainable development.

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Keywords: region’s sustainable development, family businesses
JEL: R11

Gabriela Jyż

The Legal Nature of Terms in Procedures for the Award of Payments to Agricultural Producers in the Light of the Case Law of Administrative Courts
in Poland (selected issues)

The aim of the article is to analyze the decisions of administrative courts in Poland judgments concerning the identification of the legal nature of deadlines in administrative proceedings for the grant of agricultural payments. In the jurisprudence of administrative courts it is stressed that the issue of proper determination of the legal nature of the various terms used in the provisions of administrative law is an important issue, but at the same time arousing controversy. At the same time specify the nature of the legal terms is a very important issue because of the different legal consequences of particular types of deadlines in administrative law to the rights and obligations of the agricultural producers applying for agricultural payments.

Keywords: the terms in the law, the classification of deadlines in administrative law, restoration deadline in administrative law, agricultural payments, the judgment of the Administrative Court
JEL: K00

Nadezhda Arkhipova, Lyudmila Sadovnikova

Migration, the Humanistic Technologies and the Mechanisms of
Cooperation of Education Structures

(article in Russian)
The political and economic problems are considered as the motives of migration. The uncontrolled migration leads to the psychological social economic interpersonal and others problems in the “drain” countries as well as in the “influx” countries. In order to solve the migration problems it is necessary to implement so-called humanistic technologies. This application is connected with the implementation of systems approach and strategic planning. In this, the fundamental role is acted (in spite of the political and economic areas) by the educational process that is relating to the preparation of the specialists of higher qualifications. In the article, the basic directions are depicted, related to the influence of educational structures on the economic and social development of regions. The stable political and economic situation of the regions and countries leads to the decrease of emigration flood.

Keywords: migration, social and ethnic tension, migratory flood, humanistic technologies, cognitive approach, labor market, consulting, organizing space, mechanisms of cooperation of region and higher educational institutions
JEL: F2, O15

Jan Andreasik

Semantic Representation of the Safety System.
The Functional Resonance Analysis Method FRAM

The paper describes the functional resonance analysis method FRAM. The FRAM method was presented by Eric Hollnagel. First part focuses on semantic representation of the safety system, second part describes the aggregation of variability procedures. Third one presents cases of the FRAM method application into analysis of safety system in industrial areas. The paper is compiled article based on other papers.

Keywords: FRAM, safety system, variability procedures
JEL: D8

Jarosław Bielak, Andrzej Burda, Mieczysław Kowerski, Krzysztof Pancerz

Modelling and Forecasting Cash Withdrawals in the Bank

(article in English)
The goal of the paper is searching for the optimal forecasting model estimating the amount of cash withdrawn daily by the customers of one of the Polish banks by means of statistical and machine learning methods. The methodology of model creation and assessment criteria are significantly different for the models considered in the paper — i.e., for ARMAX and MLP. However, the comparison of forecasts generated by both models seems to be useful. Variables and attributes reflecting the calendar effects, used in both models, in case of obtained errors of forecasts less than 20%, showed a significant, non-linear influence of this type of predictors on the amount of the daily cash withdrawals at the bank, and hence on the amount of the daily declared cash limit.

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Keywords: bank cash withdrawals forecasts, ARMAX and MLP models
JEL: C22, C45, C53, G21