cover vol. 14 no. 1


Anna Lewandowska

An Integrated Approach to Innovation:
the Way of the EU and Poland

(article in English)
Supporting innovation, particularly technological progress, is considered a substantial element of policies towards sustainable development. It is considered that both research and innovation contribute to employment growth, increase prosperity and quality of life. Given the above assumptions and the role of research in the knowledge-based economy, the European Union has decided to create their own innovative policies and instruments of implementation. The paper defines the areas of convergence between cohesion policy and innovation policy implemented by the EU and Polish policy implemented at national and regional level. In Poland, innovation, competitiveness and eco-efficiency play a significant role in the regional disparities and an integrated approach to innovation can provide benefits for both Poland and the EU.

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Keywords: EU cohesion policy, regional policy, economic development, innovation
JEL: O31, R11, R58

Kazimierz Perechuda, Daria Hołodnik

Regional Business Models. Comparison Perspective between Creative
and Traditional Industries

In the paper is formulated new paradigm of regional development based on the management perspective, especially business model concept. According to that theoretical optic, regional business model can be seen as a networking meaning field that is the synthesis of intangible potentiality of local society (e.g., intellectual capital, social capital, creativeness capital), thus explicitly reflects quality aspects of the development. Local government decision-makers, therefore should take into account intellectual and virtual dimensions that determinate possibilities of creative industries absorption and implementation into the region. Moreover, to point out the main differences between creative and traditional regional models are explained according to the results and determinants of social capital development in wine regions, where the competitive advantage is basically related to value, idea, knowledge and emotion transfers, both ways from and to the client-visitors of wine routes (e.g., happiness, joy, unforgettable moments are crucial factors during providing services for the wine-tourists). However, in the wine regions based on traditional approach of development (e.g., in Poland) wine services are still contributed to material, infrastructure and low social returns investments. In the recommendation part of the paper are shown reorientation instruments of transformation from traditional to creative industries regional business model, which particularly should correspond with increasing intellectual, social and relation capital.

Keywords: regional business model, creative industries, wine tourism management

Małgorzata Wachowska

Barriers to Academic Entrepreneurship in Lower Silesia. Research Results

The subject of this paper is a form of academic entrepreneurship that manifests itself in sales of academic inventions in the form of either patents or licenses. The aim of this paper is to indicate reasons for which academic researchers from Lower Silesia (Poland's NUTS 2 region) do not engage in the commercialization process of inventions they create. On the basis of information obtained during direct interviews with academic researchers from Lower Silesia it may be concluded that the main barrier to academic entrepreneurship in Lower Silesia is the use of inadequate policy instruments that encourage academic researchers only to generate inventions and submit them for patent protection but little motivate them to engage in research commercialization.

Keywords: academic entrepreneurship, knowledge commercialization, inventions, patents, Lower Silesia
JEL: I23, O31, O34

Beata Skubiak

Social Innovations in Theory and Practice

The first part of the article explains the approach to social innovations by the author. The literature review in that field states that there are two schools: first is based on a functional approach, in which social innovations are seen as creative solutions to social problems and the other states that social innovations are activities aimed at transforming social relations that form the base of social problems. The second part of the article discusses certain examples of social innovations in functional terms as educational actions in working with children and young people that are at risk of social maladjustment and the unemployed ones.

Keywords: social innovations, social economy
JEL: L33, M14

Karolina Olejniczak

Importance of Endogenous Factors of Regional Development in the Light of Empirical Research

The development factors of the region represent some features or combinations of these to be used in a specific place and time, leading to a positive changes in the territory. The most important driving force of the region are endogenous factors. They consist of, among others, social and economic potential, location and infrastructure, availability of production factors and entrepreneurship. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of endogenous factors of development of economic, infrastructural and spatial sphere in the Leszno subregion. In particular, it focuses on the ability to innovate and develop new techniques and technologies, the importance of business environment institutions and factors relating to location, which according to the author have a particular impact on the development of the subregion.

Keywords: businesses, endogenous factors, business environment institutions, development
JEL: R58

Maria Bernat

The Role of Foreign Capital Invested in the Form of Foreign Direct Investment in the Economy of the Opolskie Voivodship in the Years 1990–2015

(article in English)
The article provides an assessment of the role of FDI in the regional economy based on the levels of economic efficiency: structural changes of the economy, economic stimulating activity, employment, modernization of the production apparatus and exchange with foreign countries. The following considerations seek to answer the questions to what extent has FDI become a catalyst for economic growth in the region and has it been a tool for benefiting the investors. The author drew attention to the effects generated by foreign companies in the domestic environment and their response to the global economic crisis.

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Keywords: foreign direct investment, privatization, modernization, competitiveness
JEL: F21

Paweł Dobrzański

Conditions for Development of the German Economy in 2000–2012

The main goal of the article is to identify main competitive advantages for modern economies. German economy from many years is one of the world’s leader, that’s why this country has been chosen by author for analysis. The analysis has been carried out for period 2000–2012. In first part of article the role of government has been presented. Moreover to achieve research goal main macroeconomic indicators for German economy have been presented, inter alia: GDP, GDP per capita, import and export of goods and services also import and export ICT and high-tech goods. In addition the article discusses innovation and human capital indicators, inter alia: expenditures on R&D, level of education, demographic aspects and its forecast, labor productivity, unemployment rate, patents. Finally article presents short overview and assessment of innovation and human resources and human capital. Implementation of research on competitive advantages of Germany economy requires the use of diverse methodological approaches. The method of individual cases was used in describing the role of government in Germany. In empirical study author used advanced analysis of statistical data.

Keywords: German economy, competitiveness, innovation, human capital, government
JEL: J11, J24, O31, O38, O52

Olena Panukhnyk

New Regional Structural Policy of Ukraine in Terms of EU Integration

(article in English)
The EU regional policy mechanisms and one of its components — regional structural policy implementation in Ukraine, based on the theory of modernization — are the subject of different scientific discussions. Using comparative analysis, conditions and factors which determine structural policies of the EU and Ukraine, were outlined. Certain risks (geo-economic, economic, energy, demographic) which are related to the structural deformation and can negatively affect Ukraine integration in the EU were identified. Mechanisms for regional structural policy were estimated and problems of their modernization in Ukraine were determined. The conclusion about the necessity of radical institutional solutions in Ukraine, including the development of selective programs of structural adjustment for regional economies was made in the article.

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Keywords: structural policy, EU regional policy, mechanisms of structural policy
JEL: R11, R12, R58

Nataliya Konstantyuk

Higher Education as a Determinant of Sustainable Economic Development of Ukraine: Financial Aspects

(article in English)
Higher education is of the foremost impact on the personality as the carrier of the knowledge-based capital. That is why the creation of knowledge-based capital is possible through the investment in higher education, the results of which are scientific investigations and innovations, which in total are in the heart of knowledge economy and the promoter of long term growth of the country. This thesis is confirmed by the expenditures for higher education, the most developed countries of the world spend a lot of financial resources for higher education and their expenditure for education can be treated as the strategic investments in nation economy of their country. It shows the relationship between the cost of education and the size of their GDP. Also the actual problems of financial support of higher education in Ukraine are examined, which hinder the development of education and the economy at all. There are recommendations for solving financial problems of higher education in Ukraine.

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Keywords: higher education, economic growth, knowledge-based economy, knowledge-based capital
JEL: I22

Katarzyna Ficek-Wojciuch

Forms and Effectiveness of Projects Activaiting Disadvantaged People
in the Śląskie Voivodship Labour Market

The projects to achieve the diversity and the range of results require both much knowledge, human capital and financial resources. Within the range of identification, the following issues are skipped: The analysis of internal and extremal conditions with regard to the project idea, preliminary analysis of the demand for the products of the project and the potential availability of resources that may be used as inputs in the project. A lack of knowledge and experience in a field of generating new project ideas and their evaluation may not only be a results of not customized project proposals but also can cause imitation of solutions resulting from the experience of other organizations, without talking into account the specific nature of existing internal and external conditions. The aim of the article is to present the results of research determining the assessment of effectiveness of various projects activating disadvantaged people in the Śląskie Voivodship (Poland's NUTS 2 region) labour market.

Keywords: unemployment, the European project
JEL: J64, H43

Stanisław Krawiec, Magdalena Kutak

Partnership Project Management in Cluster Networks

Cluster networks are stimulating environment to initiate partnership projects. The article presents results of studies conducted in the second quarter of 2015, among the 13 active clusters in Śląskie Voivodship (Poland's NUTS 2 region) to identify the most important issues related to cluster’s preparedness for partnership projects management. As the main internal obstacles limiting partnership projects in clusters most often (85%) pointed the lack of activity of cluster members. and lack of sufficient financial resources (62%). As the main external obstacles limiting partnership projects pointed the lack of currently available sources of founding (100%), and long approval period for EU Programmes within the FP 2014–2020 (69%). About the Partner selection for projects realization decides good relationship however the higher the degree of complexity of the project partnership members aim to formalize the rules of the partnerships in writing and standardize project management principles. National policies and availability of the Structural Funds for 2014-2020 promotes the development of cluster initiatives and partnerships, cluster initiatives after incubation phase show ever greater awareness and maturity for the projects.

Keywords: klaster, projekt, zarządzanie, partnerstwo, kooperacja, innowacja
JEL: O31

Joanna Szafran

Implementation of the European Union Cohesion Policy in the Czech Republic
in the Programming Period 2014–2020

The Czech Republic was characterized by higher levels of income and development compared to other countries of Great accession, in particular to the capital region. In the first and shorter programming period its share of the budget of structural funds amounted to only 0,72%. Hence simplified and centralized implementation of the EU regional policy. As a result of the reform of cohesion policy for 2007–2013, the Czech Republic has become one of the largest of its beneficiaries, which resulted in significant changes and decentralization of the programming system and management of structural assistance. Due to the participation in all priority objectives of cohesion policy, this system is relatively complicated. The implementation of many operational programs encountered difficulties (including legal, administrative, personnel issues and problems with the quality of projects), which aggravated unfavorable conditions resulting from the economic crisis and political instability. In 2014–2020, the allocation for the CR to implement the objectives of cohesion policy decreased to nearly 22 billion euros (which gives about 6% of its budget). The Czech Republic has prepared 21 operational programs, including the Fisheries and Rural Development Operational Programme. In place of 7 regional one integrated program was adopted, which is managed by the Ministry of Regional Development. Defined programs and their implementation system are characterized by centralization and focus on thematic and investment objectives.

Keywords: EU cohesion policy, structural and investment funds, programming system, implementation, the managing authorities
JEL: R10, R58, O11, O20

Tadeusz Pindór

Reindustrialization of the Legnica-Głogów Copper Region

Copper ore deposit as well as accompanied elements discovered fifty years ago in Sieroszowice-Lubin region created a base for Legnica-Głogów Copper Region (LGCR) foundation. The author presented KGHM Polska Miedź Company as mine and refined copper producer as comparing it with the global sector of the copper industry. Since late 1980s, this region had been deeply restructured towards sustainable development. In this paper analyzed are technological, environmental and economic aspects of LGCR’s restructuring. The beginning of KGHM Letia Legnica TechnoPark’s, Nano Carbon Company and Institute Motorway of Technology and Innovation activity is indicating as a chance for diversification of human resources structure, production assets and final product of this region. Analysis of the LGCR’s restructuring as well as development programs allows for conclusion that this region if the first mining-manufacturing region in Poland, where the process of reindustrialization has been started.

Keywords: reindustrialization, restructuring, Legnica-Głogów Copper Region
JEL: L71, R11

Lidia Kłos

Bottled Water Consumption in Poland

Poland has introduced high EU standards for the quality of drinking water. In recent years, although the quality of water supplied via water supply systems has increased, the consumption of bottled water in Poland is still growing. This article first discusses the issues of consumption of bottled water and its impact on the environment and secondly it continues the discussion on drinking water quality in Poland. For this purpose, the article presents the data on the consumption and the quality of bottled water in Poland in the years 2008-2013 and shows the changes in the law on market eligibility of bottled waters in Poland, which followed the adaptation of laws to the EU requirements.

Keywords: drinking water, bottled water, water quality
JEL: Q25

Alicja Graczyk

Microinstallations Funding Opportunities for Prosumers
as a Factor for Local Development

The goal of the article is the identification and analysis of financial possibilities for potential prosumers of renewable energy sources (RES) microinstallations, conditions of prosumer energy development in the light of the new law on renewable energy sources and an indication of the possible risks of the microinstallations development. The first part defines the concept of prosumer and example of local development of prosumers installations in Germany. The second part deals with regulations on microinstallations and analysis of financial support from the state. The following sections provide financial opportunities for microinstallations. The final section focuses on hazard analysis of financial support of the new system for prosumer and evaluation of identified forms of support.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, microinstallations, financing opportunities
JEL: Q28

Adam Przybyłowski

Local Development Management at the Example of
the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan

Urban transport system’s efficiency and capacity is one of the most important competitiveness factors. Sustainable mobility is one that meets the needs of society to move freely, gain access, communicate, trade and establish relationships without sacrificing other essential human or ecological requirements today or in the future. This concept should become a priority while planning the cities development nowadays. The aim of the paper is to present the basic idea and solutions as far as the promotion and implementation of this concept is concerned. Based on the available documents and data and also survey research, the paper presents sustainable mobility in agglomerations with a special emphasis on Gdynia.

Keywords: sustainable urban mobility plan, local development management
JEL: O43

Piotr Lityński

Estimating the Value of Improvements of Public Goods Using a Contingent Valuation Method on the Example of Urban and Suburban Areas of
Cracow City

The aim of the paper is to estimate the values of selected public goods on both sides of the border of the city in terms of the major actors of economy. The used method is the WTP — Willingness to Pay. The method was addressed to households and companies located in the city districts and adjoining areas which are administratively not part of the city, and that are considered suburbs. The conclusions of the study indicate that the inhabitants of the two areas expressed needs for improvement of public goods. Residents of suburbs generally estimate higher the value of improvements of public goods. While firms from both areas are not interested in improvements in the field of public goods.

Keywords: willingness to pay, amenities, value estimating, public goods, space, infrastructure

Jan Pawełek

Degree of Development and Functionality of the Water Supply
and Sewage Systems in Rural Poland

(article in English)
The development of water supply and sewage systems in rural areas in Poland is presented. Several factors characterizing progress in their construction are analyzed. The scope of analysis covers such factors as the percentage of population using the systems, increase in the length of the water supply and sewage networks, the number of connections to the systems, mean values of water consumption and sewage production for the water supply and sewage system connections, respectively, and the per capita water consumption. The source material is the data published by the Central Statistical Office and results of studies by other authors. Although the development of water supply and sewage systems has accelerated recently, delays in construction continue to be observed, especially in the case of sewage disposal and treatment infrastructure. Compliance by Poland with the decisions regarding its appropriate development in rural areas is a serious problem.

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Keywords: rural areas, water supply system, sewage system, development
JEL: L95, O18

Tomasz Szul, Krzysztof Nęcka

Verifying the Performance of Multiple Linear Regression in Predicting the Indicator of Mass Accumulation of Waste. The Case of Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
In this study, the effectiveness of classical regression models to forecast the indicator of mass accumulation of waste was investigated. The economic and infrastructural variables were used as explanatory variables. The conducted studies show that applying regression models can produce forecasting models generating errors at an acceptable level although only for the municipalities of urban and urban-rural administrative type. For the models where the following were selected as explanatory variables: income indicator, mean number of persons living in a residential building, proportion of arable land in the structure of land use, percentage of buildings in the municipality covered by the waste collection scheme, and the functional type of municipality, the error in the forecast obtained for the test set amounted to 12%–14%. Using the same set of explanatory variables for the rural municipalities caused the models to display forecasting errors for the test set ranging from 35% to 50%. Also, applying another combination of input variables gathered in the course of the studies did not result in developing models of better quality. Therefore, further studies are necessary in the search for more effective methods or other variables describing the mass waste accumulation indicator in rural municipalities.

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Keywords: regression model, household, waste, forecasting
JEL: C2, C52, C53, Q5