cover vol. 14 no. 2


Mariusz Kistowski

Sozological Diagnosis as the Instrument of
Environmental Policy Planning and Implementation

The real significance of environmental protection problems in state development policy decreased in Poland in the past decade. The decrease of ecological policy documents quality is one of the examples of this process. In the situation of huge increase and dispersion of environmental information, the preparation of right sozological diagnosis seems the crucial step. This diagnosis is a start point to state environmental policy and all environmental protection programmes for voivodships, districts and communes. Diagnosis — based on indicators — should provide comprehensive knowledge concerning anthropogenical pressure on environment, environmental quality and environmental protection activities. The method proposed by paper’s author based on 86 groups of indicators analyzed between 2000 a 2009 for commune level (2478 administrative units). The primary sources of information are Local Data Bank of Central Statistical Office and State Environmental Monitoring. In the result of statistical measures analysis (decade mean value, last analyzed year value, variability in the analyzed period), the data base suitable for sozological classification was created. It allowed to prepare sozological regionalization of the country and delimitate Sozological Problems Areas (SPAs), where the main zones of environmental protection activities should be concentrated. Obtained results legitimized constancy of sozological Polish split for areas with most serious sozological problems in the southern part of the country and main city agglomerations (with the lead Warsaw) and the least problems in north Poland. This situation came from 19th century mining and industry development. In the end of study decade appeared the new zone of sozological problems, extended from Wielkopolska to Podlasie regions.

Keywords: environmental policy, sozological diagnosis, environmental quality, Poland
JEL: Q58, Q56, Q51, R58

Waldemar A. Gorzym-Wilkowski

Spatial Planning — Hope and Challenge for Research
in Socio-Economic Geography

Dynamic economic and social changes, combined with the decreasing number of candidates to universities, create challenges also to academic centres dealing with socio-economic geography. These challenges generate the need to enhance not only the educational, but above all the research usefulness of this branch for the practical aspect of science. In particular, it would be advisable to strengthen the position of research in socio-economic geography as an analytical basis for spatial planning. The current state of space development in Poland shows that, in the coming years, the importance of spatial planning must increase. However, the simultaneous increase in the importance of geography will require extending the scope of geography research to include new areas, especially those which so far have been associated with urban planning.

Keywords: socio-economic geography, research, spatial planning
JEL: B41, O21

Zbigniew Borkowski

Spatial Structure and Developmental Path of Płouszowice Research Area

The paper examines the determinants of the Płouszowice Research Area development. The analysis indicated a strong dependence of the development on the area location nearby Lublin and in the vicinity of the provincial road number 830 (DW830 ). The critical points of the analyzed area development path are the construction of the provincial road and the building development on its both sides in the form of rows of new habitats. This caused negative results, which are almost impossible to overcome by the local community. The repair process should be initiated by the local authorities. The repair actions of areas subjected to space corrosion could be based on a suspension of issuing permits for building development around the provincial road and for the modernization and renovation of the existing facilities. A higher traveling speed of vehicles moving along the road (90 km/h) should be allowed and the construction of new technical infrastructure around the road should be abandoned. The regeneration would be supported by the activities aimed at land consolidation, closing the exits from the properties onto the provincial road and building transport routes parallel to the road situated at the rear of the existing properties. A result would be a spatial and social integration of the Płouszowice Research Area and an improvement of the local spatial order.

Keywords: Płouszowice, land functions, developmental path, space corrosion, landscape degradation, regeneration
JEL: N940, O18, O21, R58, Z13

Mirosław Krukowski, Paweł Cebrykow, Joanna Płusa

Classification of Green Areas in Lublin Based on Satellite Images Ikonos 2

The vegetation becomes increasingly higher valued component of urban areas. The increasing importance of greenery as a means of protection of human life and the environment is currently emphasized. The article describes the use of images from the satellite Ikonos-2 to obtain information about the spatial structure of green spaces in the city of Lublin. High resolution satellite image, which registers the range of near infrared electromagnetic spectrum was used to calculate the normalized differentiation vegetation index (NDVI ). NDVI image was used for supervised image classification. As a result, the image of the spatial distribution of green vegetation was obtained divided into high and low. On this basis, the condition and structure of the greenery in Lublin was determined also opportunities and methodology of using remote sensing data in the study of vegetation in built-up areas was presented.

Keywords: Lublin, green areas, remote sensing, Ikonos 2 JEL: C89

Grzegorz Gołoś

Implementation Problems of a New Product — Ornithological Tourism

The article below presents the implementation issues for a new tourism product and points out to its essential difficulties. It is based on surveys results and the author’s experiences with creating tourist trails in the area of Baranów, Markuszów, Puławy and Żyrzyn communes, in the Lubelskie Voivodship. The publication contains the description from a concept throughout the sources of funding to a ready ornithological tourism product, its offer and sale. The author proposes a thesis that creating methodology and comprehensive principles is not an implementation issue. Funding the activity, however, presents a much bigger challenge along with a direct offer and sale of the ready ornithological tourism product. This view is confirmed by a questionnaire survey, which clearly indicates to the tourist operators’ lack of experience in organizing ornithological events.

Keywords: tourism product, ornithological tourism, tourist trails

Sebastian Bernat

Landscape and Acoustic Barriers. About the Needs of Landscape Studies
at the Stage of Road Design

The goal of the present paper is to examine the impact of noise protection barriers on landscape. The article discusses the problem of road design in view of landscape preservation and noise mitigation, and presents the kinds of sound barriers and their effectiveness. Finally, the author tries to answer the question whether it is possible to prevent devastation of landscape when roads are being constructed and protect against noise. For detailed research two examples of motorways investment from Lubelskie Voivodship have been chosen (Lublin bypass, Nałęczów bypass ). The paper is based on the analysis of literature, websites, press articles and field observations. There are two important factors that could contribute to preventing devastation of valuable landscapes: it is essential to include the impact of investment projects on landscape at the stage of the design and to carry out detailed landscape impact assessments. Spatial planning instruments and development of green areas should be used as the primary means of noise control if we want to avoid of landscape damage.

Keywords: noise, landscape, acoustic barrier, road, Lublin region
JEL: Q3, Q5

Magdalena Matczak, Jacek Zaucha, Kazimierz Szefler

Maritime Spatial Planning in Poland — the Dynamics of Change
in the Knowledge Gaps

Marine Spatial Planning is a fairly young process having its roots in managing human activities in vulnerable marine areas. In the Baltic Sea Region this process is taking a slightly different direction. It is seen as a decision support tool, showing social preferences towards the use of sea areas, minimizing resulting conflicts, and allocating human activities in space and time, so that the ecological, economic and social aims set out by the political process are met. Independently of the definition, one of the crucial bases for a proper process is access to good quality data and profound analyses of the environmental, economic and legal conditions of marine areas and adjacent coastal communes. Experience gained in Poland during the development of pilot marine plans and the stock-taking report has helped to define research needs. The article describes the information gaps still hampering maritime spatial planning and their rate of change within recent years.

Keywords: maritime spatial planning, research, knowledge gaps
JEL: Q59

Andrzej Kijowski, Wojciech Mania, Jacek Stelmach, Jolanta Kijowska

Use of Aerial Photography in Legal Proceedings Concerning Real Estates

The article presents the issues of the use of aerial photographs in court proceedings relating to the ownership of the land. The main types of proceedings in which materials can be used in remote sensing are presented and these are: cases regarding acquisitive prescription, cases regarding demarcation, cases regarding acquiring easement by acquisitive prescription, cases regarding expiration of easement. Article also presents the methodology of drawing up an opinion concerning aerial photographs for court proceedings. Political and economic changes that took place in Poland after 1989 contributed to the increased availability of documents previously treated as confidential. In particular, this concerned cartographic materials and aerial photographs. These changes were a result of rapid development of computer technologies supporting the processing and sharing of information. Both of these tendencies are also promoted by the integration with EU structures, particularly the ratification of the INSPIRE Directive in 2007 which aims to establish a legal framework for the creation of spatial infrastructure in Europe. It will allow institutions, including courts, to use remote-sensing sources, especially aerial photographs, more often. However, broader use of remote-sensing and cartographic sources in courts requires calling expert witnesses, who thanks to their expertise in the field of aerial photographs interpretation, help to obtain information of the degree of reliability relevant to the case. Therefore, experts assist the court but present their own opinion on the issue in question.

Keywords: photointerpretation, civil proceedings, acquisitive prescription, demarcation, expiration of easement, GIS
JEL: K11, R39

Paulina Tobiasz-Lis

Development Conditions and the Image of the City. The Example of Łódź

In the context of increasing competition between cities, former industrial hubs have a particularly hard time. To call a city industrial today, means to associate it with a set of negative images such as: the past, the old, the work, the world of production. The postindustrial city, in contrast, is associated with the new, the future, the clean, consumption and exchange and the world of leisure as opposed to work. As a response, there is a wide attempt to rewrite this negative meaning of industrial past of particular cities and construct new, more positive picture of their postindustrial future. City’s image reconstruction efforts encompass not only changes to the built environment but also encode new ways to represent and promote cleaner environments, better communities, and socio-economic progress. This article examines these issues at the example of the city of Łódź which used to be one of the biggest industrial centers in Poland for over one hundred years. Assumptions of the recent strategic development documents and actions undertaken by local authorities between 2005–2014 will be analyzed to present the way towards new identity and image of post-industrial Lódź. In parallel the paper concerns social evaluation of these changes, attempting to answer questions about their effectiveness.

Keywords: spatial perception, city’s identity and image, economic and political transformation
JEL: R58

Magdalena Zając, Grzegorz Janicki, Krystyna Bałaga

The Suburbanization Influence on the Panieńszczyzna Village Spatial
and Functional Structure Transform in the Lublin's Town Relation Zone

The detailed research was undertaken in the Panieńszczyzna village, the Jastków municipality (suburbans of the Lublin city ). Since 1989, there have been large changes in spatial and functional structure of the village observed. Simultaneously, the area is characterized by high landscape values and intensive agriculture. The suburbanization processes resulted in negative effects of the Panieńszczyzna village landscape. A local traditional rural settlement, homestead and agricultural pattern disappear while the green area decreases. A building chaos and lack of the architectonic unity clearly marks in the village morphology. In addition, the construction of the Expressway S17 lowered the price of the areas adjacent to the investment.

Keywords: suburbanization, spatial management, orthogonal viewing, Lublin city
JEL: R58, O21

Kamil Sławiński, Jolanta Trojanowska, Dorota Wolińska, Anna Godlewska, Grzegorz Janicki

Socio-Economic Conditions of Land Use Adjacent to the Transportation Hubs on the Example of the Ring Road of the Lublin City

The paper presents the project of spatial management of a selected rural area in the vicinity of Lublin city. Several social and economic elements, as well as the main methods of restoration works, were considered in the project of the environment city ring road spatial planning. Socio-economic conditions turned out to be crucial for the sustainable development of the rural area and significantly influenced the final proposal for local development. Project have a positive impact on the economy and improving social conditions by increasing an aesthetic, reduction of unemployment resulting from the creation of new jobs, using the economic and social potential of this place.

Keywords: the Lublin city ring road, spatial management, sustainable development, socio-economic development, rural area, suburbanisation
JEL: R58, O21

Waldemar A. Gorzym-Wilkowski

A Protection Plan as a Spatial Development Plan for Natural Areas

A significant part of the territory of Poland is covered by various forms of spatial nature protection. In respect of many of these forms (e.g., national and landscape parks ), protection plans are drawn up, setting out the objectives and principles of protection. Expansion of spatial development is one of the threats faced by protected areas. Therefore protection plans affect spatial development, especially spatial development plans and studies. However, the effectiveness of protection of space assets from the pressure of spatial development, that is the effectiveness of achievement of protection objectives, is varied and generally inadequate. It is possible to enhance this effectiveness by changing the form of protection plans for a form similar to that of local spatial planning documents.

Keywords: nature protection, spatial planning, protection plan
JEL: O21, Q00

Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka, Marian Harasimiuk

The Role of Geographical Research in Improving the Quality
of Spatial Planning at Various Levels of Local Government

Since geographical research encompasses spatial analyses of natural, economic and social phenomena, it is very important in the process of spatial management. The adequate formulation of spatial policy at various levels of local government depends on a thorough examination of natural determinants. The primary objective of the study is to identify problem areas in spatial planning where geographical research should be used more extensively. The study presents an assessment of strategic and planning documents in selected districts in terms of the quality of information concerning nature and principles of natural environment resources management and protection. We found that in many cases the content of these documents is incomplete. At the same time, the lower the level of planning, the greater the lack of detailed information on the natural environment. We also took note of the need to include ecosystem services to the economic balance in spatial planning and spatial management, although with a greater participation of natural scientists. We indicated selected problems related to the implementation of the provisions of the so-called landscape act and the management of geoparks.

Keywords: geographical research, natural determinants, spatial planning
JEL: R58

Andrzej Tucki

Film Tourism. Concepts and Research Issue

In the tourism industry, there has been a growing phenomenon that tourists visit destinations featured through films which are not directly related to DMOs’ tourism promotion. This is a new form of cultural tourism called film-induced tourism which still receives little attention from both academia and practitioners due to the lack of knowledge and understanding on the benefits of film on tourism. This paper investigates the phenomenon by reviewing previous international research and practices.

Keywords: film tourism development, film tourism research

Anna Maria Lis, Ewa Romanowska

Shaping the Brand Awareness of Science and Technology Parks
in Eastern Poland

(article in English)
Abstract: The main aim of the paper is the analysis of the effects of actions undertaken so far that have aimed at shaping brand awareness of the parks in Eastern Poland supported under the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland. The authors focused on the demand-side perspective and scrutinized two vectors of conscious branding: the surrounding environment and communication with customers. The group of potential customers underwent qualitative research (ITI interviews). The research in the group of the actual customers was conducted by means of quantitative methods (CAPI and CATI interviews). The results of the study indicate the lack of knowledge of the parks’ functioning, the lack of awareness of the benefits that could be achieved while cooperating with parks, low effectiveness of the existing forms of promotion of the parks, but also the high needs for innovation support among entrepreneurs. On the basis of the study results, the authors formulated recommendations for improving the promotion of parks.

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Keywords: science and technology parks, brand
JEL: M21, M38, O31, O32

Anna Mazurek-Kusiak, Andrzej Soroka

Efforts by Hotel Owners Aimed at Maintaining Ecological Balance
in Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
Abstract: The aim of the study was to identify the activities of the tourism sector which in the opinion of residents protect the natural environment of Lubelskie Voivodship. Efforts were also made to determine which activities have the greatest impact on the selection of accommodation by respondents and whether hotels fulfill the concept of sustainable social development. The size of the selected sample was 1157 respondents. The method of diagnostic survey was applied, and a direct survey was the technique, both conducted on the basis of an original questionnaire. Statistical calculations were performed using discriminant analysis and the level of education was the criterion for grouping. It has been shown that the following factors were the most important when choosing accommodation: cost-effective energy policy, including good insulation of the hotel building where respondents would stay, and a proper water management policy by the hotel company. Environmental protection was mentioned with activities that have the greatest impact on the natural environment. It has been found that it is necessary to use experiences of other countries in pursuing appropriate policies for sustainable development of a society, to monitor these policies, and to use devices which would limit the destruction of valuable and expensive resources. Both residents and organizations acting over a given area should be involved in the protection of natural resources.

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Keywords: hotel industry, eco-friendly hotel, sustainable development
JEL: H75, J15

Tomasz Szul, Krzysztof Nęcka

Methods of Estimating Waste Accumulation Rate in Rural Areas of
the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
Abstract: The study compared the effectiveness of the rough set theory and artificial neural networks with respect to predicting the rate of waste mass accumulation for recipients in the areas of rural municipalities. Simulations were performed for two variants of input variables. The first of them used all economic, infrastructure and economic indicators as independent variables. The second case was limited only to those whose correlation with the class label attribute exceeded 0,2  and they included: population density, percentage of buildings in the municipality covered by the collection system, the rate of income, and agricultural area. The analysis showed that rough sets’ models generate comparable-quality forecasts of mass waste accumulation rate for rural municipalities, such as artificial neural networks. The developed models are characterized by a high forecast error of about 20%–27%. Further research is needed towards finding effective methods or other conditional attributes that describe the rate of mass accumulation of waste in the areas of rural municipalities.

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Keywords: household, waste, forecasting, artificial neural networks, rough sets
JEL: C45, Q52

Marcelina Zapotoczna, Joanna Cymerman

Identification of Statistical Relations between Tax Policies
in Voivodship Capitals and Local Housing Market Development

(article in English)
Abstract: The authors seek the correlations between local council policies concerning residential property taxation and the growth of local housing markets in voivodship capitals in 2007–2013. The first part of the paper contains the analysis of the dynamics of changes in local property taxes followed by the evaluation of the development levels of local housing markets and their linear ordering by means of the property market development indicator. Then, in order to capture the similarities and identify trends on the local housing markets, the cities were classified into homogenous clusters. In the last stage of the analysis the authors evaluated the relevance of property tax rates adopted locally on the growth of local housing markets. The study results showed no statistically relevant correlation between the analyzed phenomena — i.e., no effect of the local property tax rates on the decisions made by investors on the local housing markets.

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Keywords: real property tax, housing market, voivodship capitals, clustering, correlations
JEL: R30

Zbigniew Omiotek, Andrzej Burda

Feature Selection Methods in Image-Based Screening for the Detection of
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis in First-Contact Hospitals

(article in English)
Abstract: In this paper, results of dimension reduction in feature space for thyroid ultrasound images using the heuristic identification of noisy variables, testing the significance of correlation coefficients and the method of Hellwig index of information capacity, have been compared. The best results were achieved using the Hellwig method. It enabled us to choose only 3 features from a large set of 283 discriminant ones. Classifiers built on the basis of this reduced set of features have the highest classification sensitivity (0,82 ) and the highest classification specificity (0,83 ) in comparison to other reduced datasets that we used in our research. Results showed that the Hellwig method can be used as an effective process for dimension reduction in feature space in classification of thyroid ultrasound images.

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Keywords: feature selection, texture classification, HINoV, Hellwig method, Spearman correlation, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
JEL: C38