cover vol. 14 no. 3


Paweł Churski, Robert Perdał

Where Do Cohesion Policy Funds Flow and Do They Have any Impact? The Polish Lesson

(article in English)
This article sums up the results of analyses of the differences of scale and structure of investments partly financed by EU funds and evaluates their compliance with the needs of the nodes of development and development peripheries in Poland, the largest, new, post-socialist EU Member State. The analysis evaluates how development factors correspond to the directions of intervention of regional policies related to their creation and enhancement. Their added value stems from a comprehensive analysis of the relations between developmental differences, the unique factors determined by different territorial capitals and the directions of interventions of development policy in Poland.

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Keywords: nodes of development, development peripheries, factors of socio-economic growth, territorial capital, EU funds, cohesion policy, Poland
JEL: O1, O2, O4, O52, R11, C55

Dominika Wojtowicz, Agnieszka Olechnicka

Short-Term Problems and Long-Term Oriented Policy:
EU Cohesion Policy Responding to Crisis

(article in English)
European Union Cohesion Policy (CP ) creates the basis for long-term sustainable development and provides a very significant financial resource in many EU countries. In many disadvantaged regions CP funds have beoame a main tool supporting implementation of regional development policy. Binding regional policy with long-term CP goals limits however the flexibility of regions in taking measures that go beyond those approved by European Commission within operational programs. In consequence, it can prevent regional authorities from adequate reaction to challenges occurring in the short-term perspective. This paper focuses on the role of CP in responding to short-term problems such as those resulting from the latest financial and economic crisis. The hypothesis on whether the CP management and implementation systems of Regional Operational Programs (ROPs ) remain unchanged in face of short-term disturbances is verified. Our study confirmed the predominantly long-term orientation of CP, as the deterioration of the economic situation in two studied regions did not bring any significant changes related to the main goals, objectives or funds allocation. However, the two case studies proved that regions undertook special actions and implemented projects focused on resolving short-term problems and challenges in the 2007–2013 period.

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Keywords: cohesion policy, regional policy, crisis of space
JEL: O21, F15

Anna Lewandowska

EU Funds. The Challenge for Innovation and Regional Disparity in Poland

(article in English)
The article concentrates on the role of European Union funds for innovation and balancing regional disparity in Poland. The challenge of regional innovativeness as a specific social process becomes more important to the regional policy and a structural Poland. The means of pro-innovative regional policy is particularly important in the light of globalization challenges and official policies made ​​by the European Union and Member States. Analyses presented in the paper are based on the programming documents at EU level, the country and the region, as well as analyses, reports and statistical data on EU funds and their impact on innovation and socio-economic development. This paper analyses the regional disparities and tries to identify the causes and measures particularly in the socio-economic development and innovativeness. It also discusses the structural funds available in 2004–2006 and 2007–2013, which can be regarded as a remarkable opportunity to improve the competitive position relative to other European regions and experience for the financial possibilities of the structural funds in the new financial perspective 2014–2020.

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Keywords: EU funds, regional development, innovation
JEL: R11, R58, O31

Radosław Ślusarczyk

Selected Regulations of Financial Markets after the Great Recession — 
a Review of Tax Changes

(article in English)
The financial market plays an essential function in the modern market economy. This role determines the importance that it has for the proper functioning of economic growth achieved by individual countries. In particular, this relationship was revealed during the Great Recession. In order to limit the negative effects that the financial market abuses has had on the real economy, legislative bodies of many countries in the world have decided to strengthen their supervision and regulation. The aim of the article is to verify the hypothesis stated by H. Minsky about the process of the creation of “thwarting systems” after financial crises. To achieve this, analysis of a review of regulations regarding financial market taxation introduced in various countries has been conducted. The results confirm H. Minsky’s hyphotesis. This article presents also the theoretical aspect of the regulation of financial markets and discusses the issue of using tax as a tool for shaping the behavior of entities functioning on that market.

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Keywords: financial crisis, financial market regulations, taxation of financial market
JEL: G01, G18

Elżbieta Wojnicka-Sycz, Piotr Sycz

The Impact of Funds from the Innovative Economy Operational Program
on the R&D&I Performance of Poland

(article in English)
The aim of the article is to review the impact of funds from the Innovative Economy Program on the Research & Development & Innovation (R&D&I  ) performance of Poland. The paper also looks at determinants other than public support which were crucial for achievement of these results based on a systemic definition of innovation. The analysis has shown that innovation policy in the form of grants channeled through the Innovative Economy Operational Program had a clear impact on the strengthening of the R&D activity of Poland, especially those of firms. The effects of it are also visible in the form of the increased international competitiveness of Polish high technology products. However the impact on innovativeness of enterprises as a whole in Poland is not visible. It suggests that crucial would be support for turning R&D efforts into commercial innovations and widening of the number of firms receiving support from public funds, for example in the form of cheap loans to make the competition more even. Nonetheless other determinants of innovativeness like qualified personnel for R&D, the level of industrialization of the economy, the overall situation in the domestic economy as well as transparency are needed to achieve good results in terms of R&D&I.

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Keywords: innovation policy, innovation determinants, structural funds, Innovative Economy OP
JEL: O31, O32, O38

Joanna Podgórska, Małgorzata Leśniowska-Gontarz

Analysis of the Relationship between Unemployment and GDP
in Poland and Spain in the Years 2002–2015

(article in English)
The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation between the unemployment rate and the rate of growth in two European countries: Poland and Spain; the hypotheses put forward are verified with the use of data from a public database of the OECD for the years 2002–2015. The first hypothesis assumes the existence of a relationship between the unemployment rate and changes in GDP. The second indicates that for every 2–3 percentage point decrease (increase) of real GDP in relation to potential GDP, the unemployment rate increases (decreases) by 1 percentage point in the two countries surveyed. The calculations verify positively the first hypothesis and, at the same time, falsify the second hypothesis for both countries.

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Keywords: GDP rate of growth, unemployment rate, Okun’s law
JEL: E23, E29

Mariola Zalewska, Zofia Sawicka

How to Measure the Elderly’s Quality of Life in European Rural Areas?
A Look at Poland

(article in English)
The study is aimed at identifying the information gap in the field of quality of life research, with regard to the quality of life and rural development indicator systems. In addition, selected indicators particularly important for the elderly in the European Union rural areas are compared. The existing indicator systems which enable an international comparison have a wide scope. Their disadvantages are that only some of them are classified by rural and urban areas (Eurostat indicators), that they are selected and presented in accordance with the current EU policy targets (rural development indicators) and that data are aggregated up to the NUTS 3 level (subregional), which makes it difficult to use this information for strategic planning at the local level. Among the three selected measures of quality of life of the elderly in rural areas, Poland ranks well below the average in access to health care.

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Keywords: quality of life, elderly people, rural areas, information gap
JEL: R15, I31, H75

Paweł Dziekański

Spatial Differentiation of the Financial Condition of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship Counties

(article in English)
The aim of the following article is to present the possibility of using a synthetic index to assess and analyze the spatial differentiation of the financial condition of a self-government on the example of the counties of Świętokrzyskie Voivodship in Poland. The analysis done is static (in the range of differentiation level of the value indexes) and dynamic, including the comparison of county situations. The data from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office in the years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2014 were used as the source material. The decline of the financial situation of the counties in the years 2008–2011 connected with the economic crisis was proven. Their financial independence and the inclination to invest decreased. The situation is diverse in the aspect of the financial condition of the counties of Świętokrzyskie Voivodship. In the studied years the lowest index was, correspondingly, in the agricultural counties: pińczowski (0,38), jędrzejowski (0,32), and kazimierski (0,29; 0,31; 0,43), while the highest was in the industrial counties: starachowicki (0,58; 0,60; 0,67; 0,68; 0,66) and skarżyski (0,52; 0,56; 0,65; 0,65; 0,61).

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Keywords: county, synthetic index of financial condition
JEL: G00, G3, G38, H00, H7, H72

Sławomir Goliszek, Marcin Połom

Comparative Analysis of Railway Transport to the Voivodship Centers of Eastern Poland — Cities of Białystok, Lublin, and Rzeszów

(article in English)
The article presents and compares railway transport to various voivodship centers of Eastern Poland which vary in terms of spatial resistance. Spatial resistance, which depends on many factors such as railway and stock infrastructure, has a major impact on the lengthening or shortening of travel time, distances and costs. Presentation of data and comparison of individual centers provides grounds for developing a strategy for further development. Availability of railway access is illustrated with several result maps. Maps depict the three most important elements related to covering distances by train. Factors analyzed include: travel time (isochrone), distance by rail and the cost of travel (isodapane) to the voivodship centers of Eastern Poland. Graphic studies provide data for the calculations presented in the charts subject to analysis. In summary, the article shows which voivodship centers of Eastern Poland feature better railway transport accessibility.

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Keywords: railway availability, isochrone, railway distance, isodapane
JEL: R42

Michał Krzyżaniak, Dariusz Świerk, Magdalena Szczepańska, Piotr Urbański

Residents’ Opinions about the Influence of Public Green Space on
Prices of Residences — the Case of Poznań, Poland

(article in English)
The influence of public green space on the value of real estate has been proven many times in different publications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate which factors, in Poznań inhabitants’ opinions, influenced the real estate value and if residents of individual parts of the city noticed the influence of public green space on the value of their real estate. From April to July 2015 we conducted preliminary research on asking prices of residences in Poznań (n = 480 ). We conducted quantitative analysis (n = 366 ) for a questionnaire survey. The most expensive residences in Poznań are located in the sector with the greatest amount of public green space. However, in spite of the fact that there had been proven differences in the prices of residences, only a slight majority of respondents (54%) saw the influence of green space on these prices. In our study the respondents indicated that the choice of residences was mostly influenced by the price and living space area. Only 1 out of more than 12 respondents found access to public green space to be important for making a decision about the choice of residences. Green space in Poznań is poorly used as a tool increasing the attractiveness of public space in the city and the city inhabitants are too rarely aware of the fact that it influences real estate value.

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Keywords: public green space, property value, green infrastructure, survey
JEL: R210

Małgorzata Trojanowska, Krzysztof Nęcka

Use of Indicator Methods for the Purposes of Monitoring Sustainable Energy
in the Region

(article in English)
Implementation of the conception of sustainable energy requires a progress evaluation, which calls for an indicator system for monitoring sustainable energy. In this paper it is proposed to use simultaneously two systems, one based on a set of specific indicators and the other on a synthetic indicator. The usefulness of proposed indicator methods was checked on the example of rural areas of the Śląskie Voivodship by monitoring sustainable energy in given counties in 2004 and 2014.

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Keywords: sustainable energy, indicators of specific consumption of heat, electricity and gas, biomass
JEL: C5, Q4

Krzysztof Pancerz, Piotr Grochowalski, Aneta Derkacz

Towards the Ontology of Places in Poland:
an Example of the Mazowieckie Voivodship

(article in English)
The main goal of our research is to build the ontology of places in Poland covering variety of aspects of places, mainly administrative and socio-economic. In the paper, we show a part of the ontology on the example of the Mazowieckie Voivodship. The ontology is being implemented using the OWL 2 Web Ontology Language.

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Keywords: knowledge base, ontology, semantic relations, OWL, places in Poland
JEL: A12, D8

Wojciech Cymerman, Joanna Cymerman

Polish Residential Property Market During Economic Slowdown Exemplified
by a Medium-Size Town

(article in English)
The main objective of this paper is to examine the dynamics of downward trends in the residential property prices exemplified by a medium-size city. A hypothesis is made that the dynamics of the decline of residential property prices in the times of crisis is much poorer in medium-size cities than in large urban agglomeration. The analysis deals with the West Pomeranian city of Koszalin with the population of 108,6 thousand. The study covers the quarters of 7 years between 2009 and 2015. The object of the study is a secondary market of residential property and cooperative ownership right to residential property. The analyses were conducted by means of mathematical statistics tools. The findings of the study on the residential property market in Koszalin are presented in reference to the data on residential property markets in 17 of Poland’s largest cities. The data come from the Register of Property Prices and Value of the Municipal Surveying and Cartographic Documentation Centre in Koszalin Center and from the Database of Residential Property Prices of the Polish National Bank.

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Keywords: real property market, residential property, market analysis
JEL: R30

Kamil Nieścioruk

The Use of Cartographic Methods in the Analyses of
the Rural Real Estate Market

(article in English)
The paper presents cartographic methods of analysis of the rural real estate market on the example of the commune Wąwolnica (Lubelskie Voivodship, Poland ) located on the border of Kazimierz Landscape Park. The primary source of data is the register of notarial deeds of estate sales and purchases (in Polish: Rejestr Cen i Wartości Nieruchomości ). The analyses result in presenting the phenomena and statistical indexes characteristics of local market. Besides basic values like mean price per cadastral unit or number of properties per property type, more complex computations in a form of interpolated statistical surfaces are included. The application of a cartographic method of research provides correlations of presented data and other features of the environment. The author stresses the meaning of proper cartographic methodology which is vital in the case of using Geographic Information System (GIS ) software.

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Keywords: real estate, property, maps, cartography, GIS, Wąwolnica
JEL: Y91, R32

Karol Noga, Żanna Król

The Patchwork of Land as a Problem Restricting the Development of
Rural Areas

(article in English)
The patchwork of land is one of the main factors negatively affecting agricultural production. Lands located in the external patchwork can be fully used for agricultural production, but the production costs are higher, and the income from the farm is smaller. The spatial layout of individual land in villages has undergone continuous changes over the centuries, which has led to their defectiveness through the occurrence of fragmentation and scattering of plots, the lack of access or large distances from the farm house. The article presents a detailed study of the spatial layout of the individual land in 29 villages of the commune of Cyców, located in Łęczyński County, Lubelskie Voivodship. The subject of the research was the fragmentation of plots of individual owners, land layout, and scattering of cadastral plots. In this work the index of the external border shape for the analyzed village was also calculated. Regarding the fact that the shape of the village is one of the most difficult properties to measure in the research, the index of shape for each village was calculated by the use of the coefficient of the expansion of borders assuming a square as a model figure. Circumference of the actual village and its area were used for calculations. The sizes of land of local and external non-resident owners of the commune of Cyców were also presented in terms of area and number of plots and the number of owners.

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Keywords: land consolidation, patchwork of land, the shape of villages
JEL: Q15, R52

Jacek M. Pijanowski

Village Renewal as an Important Element of Integrated Rural Development

(article in English)
In the article the author presents the results of research and implementation works, concerning the possibility of widespread introduction in Polish conditions of the modern principles of the implementation of village renewal programs. Currently, these programs are implemented in a much shallower form, restricted only to investments in selected items of social and technical infrastructure. Apart from Opolskie Voivodship — and part of Dolnośląskie and Pomorskie voivodships — its full potential within village renewal of the building of social capital in rural areas is not used. In addition, a properly executed village renewal project may contribute to the protection and development of natural elements in rural settlements.

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Keywords: village renewal, rural development, social participation, conservation of countryside nature
JEL: R00

Sebastian Wójcik

Temporal Disaggregation of Time Series with Regularization Term

(article in English)
Methods of temporal disaggregation are used to obtain high frequency time series from the same low frequency time series — so-called disaggregation—with respect to some additional consistency conditions between low and high frequency series. Conditions depend on the nature of the data — e.g., stack, flow, average and may pertain to the sum, the last value and the average of the obtained high frequency series, respectively. Temporal disaggregation methods are widely used all-over the world to disaggregate for example quarterly GDP. These methods are usually two-stage methods which consist of regression and benchmarking. In this article we propose a method which performs regression and benchmarking at the same time and allows to set a trade-off between them.

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Keywords: temporal disaggregation, benchmarking, time series analysis, regularization term
JEL: C22

Piotr Gradziuk, Barbara Gradziuk

Economic and Ecological Efficiency of Solar Systems.
A Case Study at the Gorzków and Rudnik Communes

(article in English)
The objective of the study was to assess the economic and ecological efficiency of solar systems used to prepare domestic hot water. The study was carried out at 501 sites in the communes of Gorzków and Rudnik (Krasnystaw County, Lubelskie Voivodship), mainly households, in the years 2014–2015. The results indicate that solar collectors used to prepare domestic hot water and financed by the investors’ own resources can be economically efficient, but the payback period for the investment depends on the type and quantity of energy carrier saved. The most beneficial effects were obtained at sites where water was heated using equipment powered by electricity and natural gas. In the case of coal savings, the payback period was longer than the lifespan of the solar installations. The use of solar collectors to heat domestic hot water (DHW) in the Gorzków and Rudnik communes led to a reduction in emissions of CO2, the primary greenhouse gas, as well as other substances. The study shows that the most beneficial cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reduction was obtained by reducing the use of electricity, while the highest cost-effectiveness indicator was noted for gas installations.

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Keywords: economic efficiency, solar installation, renewable energy sources
JEL: Q42, Q47