cover vol. 14 no. 4


Aleksandra Zygmunt

Evaluation of Innovative Undertakings
with the European Union Funds. Polish Voivodships Scope

(article in English)
The main purpose of the paper is the assessment of the European Union funds engagement in innovative undertakings in Polish voivodships. Firstly, it was made the considerations about innovations as an essential component of an integrated approach in terms of regions’ competiveness improvement. Furthermore, it was examined the differentiation in the participation of the EU funds in innovative undertakings between Polish voivodships. In this respect was applied cluster analysis, on base which was isolated space groups, which allow to comparison of the European Union funds involvement between voivodships of Poland. The research were based on data from Central Statistical Office of Poland — Local Data Bank — concerning particularly the Programme Innovative Economy. The scope of examinations contains period 2011–2015. The effects of examinations affects the ability to identify voivodships similar in scope of the accepted variables. This identification may contribute to create of comparative base actions taken to improve innovations, which could lead to an increase in the competitiveness of regions.

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Keywords: innovative undertakings, the EU funds, competiveness of region
JEL: R11

Elżbieta Strzelecka

The Creative Sector in Rural Areas in the Policy of
Balanced Regional Development

(article in English)
Territorially oriented development policy (place-based approach ) is a new model, addressed mainly to the regions NUTS 1 and NUTS 2 in EU countries, including Poland. In building of the competitive advantage, the regions make use of the so-called smart specialization, and creative sector is one of the components. The territorial capital is being built primarily based on existing development potentials of the cities. Building territorial cohesion, based on regional development requires a long-term strategy, because it is a complex process and burdened with a certain risk. The Rural Manifesto, adopted in 2015 by the European Rural Parliament, pointed to the need to redefine the objectives of EU policy on development of regions due to the unbalanced treatment of rural areas compared to cities. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the lack of balancing in regional development both in the assumptions of the program, and operational activities. Exploiting the potential of the creative sector in rural areas is conditioned by the change of awareness of regional decision-makers, undertaking research, the activities aimed at the development, and by the support, also in an international context. Cited cases: the of Puszcza Mariańska Commune and the County Leitrim in the West of Ireland are examples of different approaches to the development of the creative sector in rural areas.

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Keywords: regional development, creative industries, creative enterprises
JEL: O18, Q01

Justyna Zygmunt

Enterprises and Smart Specialization in a Place-Based Approach in Poland.
The Case of Polska Zachodnia Macro-Region

(article in English)
Place-based approach is the new paradigm of regional development, with an emphasis on endogenous resources as the essential drivers of growth. Significant substance of territorial dimension of regional development may be related to enterprises. Hence, the main goal of the paper is to assess the value of enterprises in regional development policy in the context of territorial dimension in Poland. Nonprobability sampling has been applied to focus on Polska Zachodnia macro-region (West Poland macro-region), which includes the following voivodships (NUTS 2): Dolnośląskie, Lubuskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie. Desk research of development strategies, as well as documents related to Regional Operational Programmes 2014–2020 of respective voivodships has been employed. The results show that value of enterprises in regions’ mission, vision, and main strategic objective is heterogeneous, mostly with indirect relevancy. However, the substance of enterprises for regional development is high if budgets of respective Regional Operational Programmes for activities related to enterprises are considered. By focusing on smart specialization an attempt is made in Polska Zachodnia macro-region to take advantage of regional capabilities. The findings allow to conclude of a crucial substance of enterprises in place-based approach and provide the basis for better understanding the development challenges of regions.

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Keywords: enterprises, smart specialization, place-based approach, regional development strategy, Regional Operational Programme, Poland
JEL: D83, R11, R58

Łukasz Mach

An Analysis of Chosen Aspects of Regional Potentials of Housing Economy
with Particular Focus on Social and Economic Dimension

(article in English)
This article presents factors which influence creation of regional housing economy potential. Such factors, according to public statistics, include heat engineering, housing benefits, renovations and modernizations, quantity and quality of web devices and status of housing resources. The author has chosen some factors, from those mentioned above, taking into consideration sustainable regional development with particular focus on social and economic dimension. In the calculative part, the author used multidimensional comparative analysis allowing for parametrization and analysis of the examined areas. Application of multidimensional comparative analysis showed potential of housing economy development in the chosen areas related to housing resources. The use of multi-criteria approach allows the simultaneous consideration of several dimensions of regional development, which allows the calculation of an integral multidimensional development index.

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Keywords: housing, development potential, multi-dimensional comparative analysis
JEL: O11, P52, R30

Jadwiga Zaród

An Attempt of Delimitation of Polish Metropolitan Areas
by Discriminant Analysis

(article in English)
The purpose of this article is a division of Poland into areas with different economic and social conditions and the identification of the areas which may aspire to the name of metropolis. Initial division of Polish territorial units was made on the basis of statistical data on the labor market, wages, public utilities, education, health care, environment, culture, industry and construction. These data were subjected to standardization and were verified as to whether represent a normal distribution. Then the discriminatory power of the variables were examined and parameters of the linear discriminant function were estimated. The highest average value of the discriminant function indicates the area most developed in terms of the examined features. Territorial units that belong to this complex are metropolises or aspire to being them. For each area, the classification functions were estimated and on their basis the final division was made. The allocation to the sub-region was mainly determined by variables such as density of population, unemployment rate, average flat surface and the number of entrepreneurs. In the first group are territorial units that belong already to the metropolitan areas. Subsequent numbers indicate areas with increasingly less economic and social development.

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Keywords: data standardization, discriminant analysis, classification function, metropolitan areas
JEL: C15

Wojciech Orłowski

Electoral Administration in Poland. Present Legal Solutions
and Possible Future Changes

(article in English)
The paper deals with the issues concerning the so far existing model of the election administration and the problems connected with the regional and local elections conducted in December 2014 in Poland. The computer system failure making it impossible to announce the election results on time challenged the social confidence in the election process and led to questioning the range and necessity of changes within the election system. The paper discusses in detail the origin and evolution of the election administration bodies underlining its specific character i.e. its composition of independent judges. Evaluating the National Election Committee activity alternative solutions are presented — the ones recommended in the election law by the Council of Europe through its Venice Commission.

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Keywords: regional elections, election administration in Poland, changes within the election system, Venice Commission Code of Good Practice in Electoral Matters
JEL: K49

Piotr Sawczuk

Exemption from VAT for Training, Advisory and Related Services Provided by Subcontractors of Beneficiaries Implementing Projects Financed from the European Social Fund

(article in English)
The purpose of the article is to analyze regulations concerning exemption of training, advisory and related services from Value Added Tax to the extent that these services are implemented by subcontractors of beneficiaries of funds from the European Social Fund. The “Rapid Response Instrument” project, financed from the European Social Fund, was implemented in the financial perspective of 2007–2013 under the Human Capital Operational Programme. However, the tax issues related to its implementation remain relevant. Firstly, because the period in which its implementing entities can be covered by tax inspections with regard to compliance of the conducted settlements with the valid regulations has not elapsed yet. Secondly, the mechanism of settlement of similar projects may be used in the new financial perspective for the period of 2014–2020. Therefore, the stance with regard to tax consequences of the settlement mechanism used between entities carrying out trainings funded from the European Social Fund, worked out so far by the tax authorities and administrative court, may apply accordingly also to those projects.

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Keywords: trainings funded from the European Social Fund, exemption from VAT for training, related services, advisory, catering and accommodation services, tax interpretations, judicial decisions of administrative courts
JEL: H2, K34

Kazimierz Górka

The Negative Income Tax as a Neoliberal Solution for Social Policy

A major increase in public debt and unfavorable demographic situation in Poland induce to look for new solutions in the social policy. According to the authors, worth considering alternative is a negative income tax (NIT) proposed by Milton Friedman, which constitutes in fact a subsidy paid by the state to persons receiving income below a certain minimum. NIT, despite some deficiencies and strong criticism arising from the conviction that its implementation will decrease the activity of certain members of society, has certain advantages. These include, above all, a simple mechanism for its operation and low administrative costs.

Keywords: public finance, social policy, negative income tax
JEL: H55, H71

Łukasz Dymek

Practical Action and Thinking of Strategic — 
Voice in the Debate over Local Development

The article presents the word in a discussion on the implementation of strategic documents for local development. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the problems associated with the development and implementation of strategies. The base for text is research and analysis conducted in the region over the programming and development planning. Initial observations suggest that the strategic documentation applicable in the municipalities is inadequate to their needs, and therefore the local government not exactly know how to use them.

Keywords: local development, strategy, strategic planning, programming of development
JEL: R11

Mariusz Zieliński

Changes of Voivodships Competitiveness in Poland from the Perspective of
the Labor Market

One of the factors determining the regions competitiveness is a competitiveness of the labor market. The primary measure of the competitiveness of the labor market is the ratio between labor costs and productivity. Article attempts to answer two research questions: How changing the competitiveness of the regional labor markets from the perspective of the accepted in this article criteria? Is the persistence of interregional disparities in Poland is justified in the competitiveness of regional labor markets? Statistical data from the Statistical Yearbooks of Regions show that differences in the situation of voivodships labor market (economically active population , the level of wages and productivity) relative decrease. However significant reduction of wage differentials in the short term is not possible, because it keeps a competitive advantage in the labor market more developed regions.

Keywords: regional labor market, economically active population, wages, gross value added
JEL: J21, J24, J31, R11

Krzysztof Malik, Arkadiusz Tkocz

Analysis of the Potential of Private Expenditure on R&D Sector in the Context of the Regional Operational Programme for Opolskie Voivodship 2014–2020

Article attempts to assess the possibility of replacing the share of the public sector by private contribution, in the financing of the regional area of research and development. Aim of the research was the determination of the status and the possibility of financing regional R&D from private sources on the example of companies from opolskie region in the perspective of 2020. Contribution to this discussion and analysis was imposed by the European Institutions to meet the requirement of thematic ex-ante conditionality. This condition includes “identification of instruments affecting stimulate private investment in R&D,” as well as “analysis of the regional potential for the possibility of the involvement of private expenditure on R&D.”

Keywords: R&D sector, potential of innovation, ex-ante conditionality, transfer of knowledge, business expenditure on research and development, Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Marzena Szewczuk-Stępień

Support for Process of Knowledge Commercialization and Integration of Academic Community with Economic Environment

The aim of the paper is to present the idea of innovation and the results of implementing the program “Innovation Brokers” against the background of barriers and limitations to the effective process of knowledge transfer. The paper reports the results of a study into commercialization of the results of research, knowledge and technology transfer as well as the support for development based on innovations. The contributions to the discussion and the analysis are based on the completion of the “Innovation Brokers” program as well as identification of a global trend involving the activity of various environments aimed at the creation and development of an innovation ecosystem.

Keywords: knowledge commercialization, knowledge transfer, innovation, innovation broker

Adam Przybyłowski

Responsible Spatial Planning — the Road Infrastructure Development
in Tri-City Agglomeration. Case Study

Infrastructure investments from the local budget or EU funds are to serve both the society and the entire economy. Thanks to a well-developed road infrastructure it is possible, among others, to reduce travel time, increase passenger comfort, gain an easier access to work, education, health and culture. Through the developed infrastructure the space and the economy become more competitive in the international arena. As a result, domestic and foreign investors are interested in investing in the region. This results in, among others, new jobs and rising land prices. The aim of the article is to present the issues related to the development of road infrastructure in Tri-City (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Sopot) agglomeration in the context of the responsible use of space. This was done on the basis of available documents and data sources, as well as the results of surveys carried out in the form of an interview using a questionnaire.

Keywords: investments, road infrastructure, Tri-City agglomeration (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Sopot), research survey
JEL: O43

Alicja Małgorzata Graczyk

Coordination of Energy Policy — Regional Focus on Support of Renewable Energy Sources in the Light of the Strategy for Energy Development
in Lower Silesia

The article concerns issues related to the coordination of energy policy in the region of Lower Silesia. Its purpose is to identify and analyze the actions necessary to effectively support the development of renewable energy sources (RES) in connection with the implementation of the Strategy for energy development in Lower Silesia. In the first part the author shows the place of RES in Strategy, the second identifies the actors play a key role in the implementation of the Strategy, and then analyzes the relationship between the actions of individual actors with a focus on efficiency and effectiveness of these actions. The final part of the article is an example of integrated actions within the framework of communal support of the development of renewable energy sources.

Keywords: energy policy, Lower Silesia region, renewable sources of energy, energy development strategy
JEL: R11, Q2, Q4

Andrzej Graczyk

The Efficiency of Financing Proecological Activities in the Voivodship X
in the years 2008–2010

The article presents outcomes of analysis and assessment of economic and ecological efficiency. The investigations concerning inputs from public funds spending on emission reduction and other activities bringing this effect indirectly. Discussed activities were financed by Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in voivodship X in the years 2008–2010. The conclusion was that the majority of tasks did not fulfil the basic condition — the obtainment of the surplus of avoided external costs over the size of financing from public funds.

Keywords: external costs, valuation and funding of proecological activities, public inputs, efficiency
JEL: H71, Q51

Stanisław Krawiec

Challenges Concerning the Development of Sustainable Mobility
in Cities and Agglomerations

The article presents new challenges facing the municipal, metropolitan and regional governments, associated with the process of technology development and deployment of sustainable transport. Particular attention was paid to the creation of new transport systems based on the electromobility technologies. The aim of the article is to present the changes in the mobility culture as a result of transport technology development and taking into account the needs of environmental protection. Particular attention was paid to the e-mobility development which is a form of mobility that is based on electric drive and respect for ecological conditions.

Keywords: new mobility culture, electromobility, electric buses, sustainable transport system
JEL: R42

Karina Bedrunka

Health Programmes in the Opolskie Voivodship as a Base for
Project Initiatives — the First Experiences

IIn the light of current and projected demographic problems, it is important to take effective measures in many areas of the regional policy and on many levels of regional policy’s management. Successful fundraising, including the EU funds, aimed at social welfare may significantly affect eliminating social and economic inequalities resulting from unfavourable demographic trends (e.g., aging of the society or expected changes in the labour market) which significantly affect public health. The aim of the following research is to identify ex-ante whether and how barriers in implementation of regional health programmes are identified, especially in reference to diabetes, overweight and obesity as well as support of the mother and child. On practical ground the research aims at formulating recommendations on how to remove barriers and offering solutions that will support effective implementation of programmes through project initiatives co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF ). Ongoing and planned initiatives in the health area are mainly based on the regional health programmes. In this respect Opolskie Voivodship gained experience as one of the first voivodships in the country.

Keywords: depopulation, European Union funds, regional health programmes
JEL: J110, I120, H510

Łukasz Biłos

The Theoretical Potential of Energy from Stable and Predictable Sources
in Opolskie Voivodship in 2015

Recent law modifications in the field of renewable energy sources generates new opportunities in the production of energy from biomass (in the form of biogas also) and indicate the direction of energy produced in small sources. The article presents the estimated energy potential of the Opolskie Voivodship in the field of usage of energy from stable and predictable sources.

Keywords: agricultural biogas, heat pump, theoretical potential of renewable energy, Opolskie Voivodship
JEL: Q490

Małgorzata Adamska

The Role of Human Capital in the Customer Relationship Management.
The Results of Research in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises of
the Opolskie Voivodship

The paper characterized the salesforce human resources and its role in customer relationship management. The general proposition of this paper, is to discuss the conditions and instruments under which managers can motivate enterprise saleforce HR. A part of the report, based on the results of studies carried out on the client capital management in the small and medium-sized enterprises in Opolskie Voivodship, was dedicated to human capital management responsible for the cooperation with client capital in those enterprises.

Keywords: human capital, customer relationship management, consumer confidence

Łukasz Popławski, Bogusław Kaczmarczyk

The Value of the Public Space as a Category of the Common Good
on the Example of Małopolskie Voivodship

The aim of the article is a relatively new area of analysis, including a proposal methodical approach to the estimation of market value of public space as a common good. This new method of modeling based on economic processes uses MP-inverse class solutions was applied for estimation of linear model of valuation of public space in Małopolskie Voivodship as an example. Econometric models of public space are a new solution for qualitative and quantitative analysis of space as a category of the common good, considering its function and profitability or market value.

Keywords: value of public space, UEK method
JEL: H41

Rafał Sapuła, Karolina Dymowska, Joanna Sapuła

Analysis of the Efficiency of the Prophylactic Rehabilitation Programme of
the Polish Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) in the Opinions of Potential Insurance Beneficiaries

(article in English)
Due to the fact that the number of the Polish Social Insurance Institution (ZUS ) pension beneficiaries has increased significantly, ZUS has introduced a programme of prophylactic activities basing on rehabilitation treatment. The assumptions of the rehabilitation programme are to improve and modify the everyday functioning of patients who are threatened with loss of employability through injury or disease so that they may begin working again. The aim of this study was the assessment of the efficiency of ZUS prophylactic rehabilitation activities on the example of SANUS Specialist Hospital Ltd. in Stalowa Wola in the time between November 2014 and February 2015. The study included 148 patients (61 women — 41%, 87 men — 59%). The tool used for the analysis was an author questionnaire for patients participating in the programme. The majority of patients participating in the prophylactic rehabilitation programme suffered from spinal injuries. Over 41% claimed to be ready to begin working again after rehabilitation treatment, and 39% declared to be undecided as to whether or not they are able to begin working again whereas 20% declared themselves not to be ready to return to work. The worst rehabilitation treatment results were observed among patients who have suffered injures of upper and lower extremities. The length of the 24-day rehabilitation treatment performed as a part of the ZUS prophylactic rehabilitation programme for patients with injuries of upper and lower extremities proved insufficient. A further analysis of patients with such injuries considers prolongation of the rehabilitation treatment. There is a need for prophylactic activities directed towards patients who participate in the ZUS programme for the first time since 49% of the patients included in the questionnaire require a participation in a follow-up rehabilitation treatment.

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Keywords: prophylactic rehabilitation programme, the Polish Social Insurance Institution (ZUS), public and private health insurance
JEL: I13

Mieczysław Kowerski, Mirosław Wypych

Ownership Structure and Dividend Strategy of Public Companies.
Evidence from Poland

(article in English)
The aim of the article is to verify a hypothesis of the ownership structure influencing the dividend strategy of companies listed at both main stock and alternative markets of the Warsaw Stock Exchange. In order to evaluate the hypothesis, dynamic panel Lintner’s partial adjustment models with individual random effects have been estimated by means of instrument variables method, separately for each of the five company groups specified due to their ownership structure. Each one has systematically paid out dividends in the years 2012–2016. The results confirm that the dividend strategies of companies significantly depend on their ownership structure. Companies controlled by strategic investors had the highest dividend payout ratio, whereas the ones controlled by institutional investors — the lowest.

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Keywords: ownership structure, dividend strategy, Lintner’s partial adjustment model, instrument variables method, Warsaw Stock Exchange
JEL: G02, G3, O16, C23

Agnieszka Thier

Social and Economic Consequences of Changes in the Water Law in Poland

The author starts a discussion on the draft of a new bill of Water Law. The former bill, which has been in force for 15 years, needs an amendment. Nonetheless, the draft of the bill raised much controversy. This is because the draft stipulates radical legislative and organizational changes leading to centralization of water management, which mean a step backwards in the liberalization and decentralization of the economic. The second direction of changes — to much surprise of entrepreneurs — is the approach to economic issues. The new bill is to significantly increase the volume of water services which are going to be charged for — which might be considered justified — and raise many times the rates for water. The paper discusses at length the impact the new rates are going to make on the beverage and bottled mineral water industry.

Keywords: bill of Water Law, volume of water services, mineral water industry, centralization of water management

Mieczysław Kowerski

Abstract of Andrzej Jakubowski, Andrzej Miszczuk, Bogdan Kawałko,
Tomasz Komornicki, and Roman Szul: The EU’s New Borderland.
Cross-Border Relations and Regional Development

(article in English)
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