cover vol. 15 no. 1

Abstracts

Piotr Gradziuk, Barbara Gradziuk

An Attempt to Evaluate Absorption of the Funds from
the Operational Program Infrastructure and Environment within Action “Generation of Energy from Renewable Sources”

(article in English)
The aim of the study was the evaluation of the absorption of funds from the Cohesion Fund within the Operational Program Infrastructure and Environment for 2007–2013, Priority IX: Environmentally-friendly power infrastructure and power effectiveness, Action 9.4 – Generation of energy from renewable sources. The source material constituted data acquired from the Department of European Funds of the Ministry of Energy (institution implementing the action). The methods of comparative analysis were used for the purpose of the evaluation. The final result of the analyzed action was the performance of 64 facilities in 71 locations for total value of PLN 5 749 million, with co-funding of PLN 1 520 million. Circa 82% of this amount was allocated to 55 investments in “wind power” and the remaining part to 12 biogas plants (9,3%) and 4 power plants powered with solid biomass (8,7%). As a result of the performance of the studied action, the power of the sources generating electric energy increased by 823 MWe, including wind power — by 704 MWe, in plants powered with solid biomass — by 102 MWe, in biogas plants — by 17 MWe. Whereas, in terms of quantity of electric energy projected to be generated within one year, the proportions were slightly different and were as follows: in wind power — 1 790, in biomass power plants 650 GWh, in biogas power plants 144 GWh. Among the studied projects, biomass power plants were characteristic of the most favorable values of investment contributions for 1 MWh of planned production of electric energy. Their average value was much lower than in the case of a biogas plant (by 178%) and wind power plants (220%).

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Keywords: support systems, Operational Program Infrastructure and Environment, renewable energy sources
JEL: Q28, Q42

Aleksander Panasiuk

From Basic Tourism Products to a Comprehensive Offer of a Tourism Area

(article in English)
This study is an attempt to analyze the evolution of terminology used in tourism sciences concerning a tourism product as well as derivative terms. The issue of a tourism product causes a lot of controversy over its semantics and structure in both international and domestic literature on the subject. The problem mainly arises from use of this term by representatives of many sciences and the industry. Moreover, the issue of a tourism product is constantly being developed in terms of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects. The objective of the study is to outline applied terms which include the category of a tourism product as well as to propose a concept of a comprehensive tourism offer of an area which is made up by particular components. The article is mainly theoretical; however, the discussed issues are of a utilitarian nature. They use the method of critical analysis of literature, logic operations and heuristics. Taken considerations are original aspects. The result of the study is to design a concept of a comprehensive offer of a tourist area.

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Keywords: energy efficiency audit, photovoltaic system, public utility facility
JEL: Z3, R10, R58

Krzysztof Nęcka, Tomasz Szul

Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems in Public Utility Facilities in Light of
the European Parliament Directive Requirements on Energy Efficiency

(article in English)
A public utility facility underwent an energy and economic efficiency audit regarding the photovoltaic system generating electricity for its own needs. The audit included an analysis of the amount of energy produced by the PV generation system, the calculation of the amount of the energy conserved, as well as the economic viability of the project in accordance with the guidelines contained in the Regulation of the Minister of Economy on energy efficiency. Two options for the financing of investments were considered: own resources of the public body or the purchase of the system with the financing from the EU funds — ROP Measure 7.2 – Improving air quality and increase in the use of renewable energy sources. On the basis of the economic analysis, it was determined that the installation of a photovoltaic system is economically justified only if the public body receives funding from external sources — such an investment (taking into account the changing value of money over time) may be recovered after 13 years of use, and the cost incurred to conserve energy will be twice lower than the cost of purchasing electricity from the grid.

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Keywords: energy efficiency audit, photovoltaic system, public utility facility
JEL: Q28, Q42

Piotr Lityński

Infrastructure Expenditures versus Local Budget Resistance of Communes under the Risk of Urban Sprawl

(article in English)
The subject of the study is to identify the impact on communes budgets in Poland of one of the major costs of urban sprawl (i.e., excessive expenditure on infrastructure). The study takes two objectives: first, whether excessive infrastructure costs in Polish communes are common; second, what the mechanism is determining an excessive budgetary burden on communes through infrastructure expenditures. The objectives were made using taxonomic methods in relation to the 222 communes in Poland 2007–2014. Among the most important conclusions from the study is the fact, that excessive infrastructure expenditures are observed in Poland, but they are not a common phenomenon. The mechanism of an excessive budgetary burden of these expenses is determined by the weakness of the financial policy of the communes in terms of their own revenue and low level of economic development.

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Keywords: urban sprawl, infrastructure, communes’ budgets expenditures, excessive budgetary burden
JEL: H720, R510, R580

Sławomir Olko, Jan Brzóska

Conception and Implementation of Regional Innovation Strategy
Based on Smart Specializations of Śląskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The purpose of the paper is to investigate the process of selecting regional smart specializations in designing and implementing Regional Innovation Strategy (RIS ). It presents conditions concerning selection of three smart specializations — i.e., power sector, medicine and information and communication technologies (ICT ) on the background of selected smart specializations in the remaining regions of Poland and other EU states. They are characterized in the aspect of using the knowledge for the purposes of implementation of the goal adopted in RIS. The basic research problem (in the methodology aspect) was to create a model allowing for planning and implementing content-related works concerning innovation strategy, which should ensure development of a region and obtain necessary financing. The methodology implemented in the paper consists of two parts. The first one applies to developing (designing) RIS, the other to its implementation. The basic content-related assumption of the design stage is to support the concept and strategy implementation on smart specializations. This means effective and synergistic utilization of public support to strengthen innovative capacities by focusing on the most promising areas in which the region could reveal a competitive advantage. The second part of the methodology refers to the implementation model of RIS which is based on the assumption of smart specialization development in the region, but much more refers to the practical aspects: identified projects in the region and possibilities of financing them. The value of the paper consists in presenting a design method and RIS implementation model in one of the regions in Poland, namely Śląskie Voivodship. In particular, smart specializations selected in the region were characterized in a strategic aspect and their role in creating and implementing RIS was emphasized.

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Keywords: innovation, Regional Innovation Strategy, smart specialization, Śląskie Voivodship
JEL: O32, R11, R58

Anita Richert-Kaźmierska

Ageing of Society — Local Disparities. Classification of the Pomorskie Voivodship Communes According to the Pace and Progress of Local Communities’ Ageing

(article in English)
The article deals with the issues of local disparities in the field of advancement and pace of demographic ageing. The subjects of the research were communes of the Pomorskie Voivodship. The purpose of the article — i.e., diagnosing and assessing the progress and pace of ageing of local communities in all 123 communes of the Pomorskie Voivodship, was achieved using a combination of traditional measures of ageing: age factor, the rate of double ageing, median age and the old age dependency ratio. In addition, grouping of the surveyed communes based on the criterion of progress and pace of population ageing was proposed. The results of the conducted analyses may be of practical use — they can be used by the commune and county governments, as well as by the regional government of the Pomorskie Voivodship to optimize the activities within the framework of development policies in view of the current demographic changes.

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Keywords: population ageing, measures of local communities’ ageing progress, classification of communes, Pomorskie Voivodship
JEL: J11, J14, R58

Renata Marks-Bielska, Wiesława Lizińska, Karolina Babuchowska, Magdalena Wojarska

Factors Determining the Institutional Efficiency of Self-Governments
in the Economic and Spatial Area

(article in English)
The work attempts to assess measures developing institutional efficiency in the economic and spatial area implemented by the local self-governments in Poland, as well as the evaluation of the effects thereof. Two indexes were used (the tasks implementation index — Wr and the effects index — We). The analyses conducted imply that the effects indexes assumed higher values than the implementation indexes. In the self-evaluation of self-government authorities, irrespective of the number of undertaken measures, the ones that are implemented bring the assumed effects. From among the measures undertaken by local self-governments in order to support starting up and conducting economic activity in their territory, the favorable disposition of officials and the improvement in general technical infrastructure of an urban municipality were indicated most frequently. In the area of space management, the tasks related with increasing municipalities’ aesthetics were distinguished (on average in Poland — 76,31%).

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Keywords: institutional efficiency, local economic development
JEL: E02, H70

Daniel Puciato, Teresa Słaby, Bolesław Goranczewski, Agnieszka Gawlik

Conditions of Business and Holiday Hotels Location.
Dolnośląskie, Opolskie and Śląskie Voivodships Case Studies

(article in English)
From the economic point of view the choice of a hotel location is the most important decision for an investor, made at the pre-investment stage of a business project. An attractive building location and a service programme appropriately matched to it determine the profitability level and as a result the development prospects of the hotel. An attempt to determine the most important factors of the location of newly built business and holiday hotels is the aim of the paper as well as the use of documentary and statistical methods in the empirical domain. The spatial scope of the survey comprised Dolnośląskie Voivodship, Opolskie Voivodship and Śląskie Voivodship, while the time covered the years 2000–2009. The analysis of the survey results have shown that the most important factors for business hotel locations comprised transportation access, investment incentives of a planning-administration nature, the supply of tourist services, the level of economic development, the degree of economy internationalization as well as availability of investment areas. In addition, in the analyzed group of holiday hotels the tourist (natural) values, access to skilled hotel staff, investment incentives (of a planning-administration nature), an increase in competition in the hotel sector as well as the supply of tourist services turned out to be statistically significant location factors. After the survey, numerous leads appeared, which in the authors’ opinion should become the subject of further consideration of issues related to hotel location selection conditions.

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Keywords: general hotel location, location factors, regional tourism policy, southern-western Poland
JEL: D21, H70, L83, O18

Beata Meyer, Anna Gardzińska

Development of Tourism in a Cross-Border Area on the Example of
the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

(article in English)
Cross-border areas can be places of economic, social, cultural and tourism activity. Tourism development in such areas depends not only on the level of attractiveness of tourism assets and tourist infrastructure but, primarily, on the cooperation of many regional and local entities, expressed e.g. in the effective promotion of cross-border tourism products. The objective of the article is to identify determinants of tourism development and specify barriers to its development in the cross-border area of the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The desk research method was used for the purposes of this paper. An audit of the current tourist development of the researched area (based on data provided by the Polish and German Statistical Offices) was used to determine the area’s tourism potential. The significance of cooperation for the creation of cross-border tourist products was illustrated by case studies of selected projects. The Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship and the German Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern make up a cross-border area well placed for tourism development, on the account of numerous tourism assets, good tourism development and the activity and involvement of tourism entities in the implementation of common tourist initiatives. The obstacles in turn are mainly of an administrative and financial nature. The analyzed projects, realized in the researched area by Polish and German entities, indicate the key importance of cooperation in cross-border areas.

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Keywords: tourism, cross-border area, cross-border cooperation
JEL: L83

Anna Krzepiłko, Monika Skowrońska, Iwona Krzepiłko, Aleksandra Filipiuk

Opinion Survey of Lublin University Students on Genetically Modified Plants

(article in English)
In recent years genetically modified plants have become a subject of discussion not only among scientists but among consumers and politicians as well. This is a controversial issue, mainly due to the conflicting information appearing in the media concerning the properties of these plants, their impact on human health, and how they function in the natural environment. A survey was conducted to learn the opinions of students of Lublin universities regarding the cultivation and applications of genetically modified crops. The students surveyed claim to be familiar with issues associated with GMOs and express a desire to learn more about the subject, although their main sources of information are the Internet and television. They also perceive the need for the government to conduct a reliable information campaign on this subject. Their opinions on GMO plants are ambivalent; they have concerns about the cultivation and use of GMO plants, but also perceive the benefits that this biotechnology could provide.

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Keywords: GMO, plants, opinions on GMO
JEL: I25

Maria Baron-Puda

Improving Graduate Employability through Internship Programs

(article in English)
A mismatch between qualifications and skills demanded and supplied is one of the main problems in the labor market. It concerns also higher education graduates. They have the theoretical background, however their abilities to apply knowledge in a work situation are insufficient. The main aim of this paper is to present the contribution of the internship program to the employability of graduates of University of Bielsko-Biala. The paper consists of three parts. The first describes changes in unemployment by educational background in the Bielsko-Biała labor market in 2010–2015. The second part includes employment prospects for graduates, with a special focus on the benefits of the internship program. The final part emphasizes the role of cooperation between the university and employers to ensure better preparation of graduates for the labor market. The paper was based on available statistical data on unemployment in the Bielsko-Biała labor market, and on the results of the surveys among employer representatives and students who participated in the internship programs within two European projects realized in University of Bielsko-Biala over 2010–2015. The research confirmed that a lack of experience reduces the chances of graduates to obtain suitable employment. Moreover, research findings proved that the internship program, developed and implemented in close cooperation with local companies, may increase employment opportunities after graduation. There is, therefore, a clear need for further cooperation between education and business in order to facilitate the transition of graduates from education to employment, as well as to satisfy labor market needs.

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Keywords: labor market, graduates, unemployment, employability, internship program
JEL: J24, J64

Jan Gawełko, Marek Cierpiał-Wolan, Sebastian Wójcik

Regression Models in Analysis of the Laryngeal Cancer Incidence Trends
in Females in Podkarpackie Voivodship

(article in English)
Laryngeal cancer is the most common cancer of the head and neck. The main predisposing factor is exposure to cigarette smoke, alcohol, occupational factors and HPV infections. An analysis of the incidence of laryngeal cancer in Poland shows that since the beginning of the 1990s the incidence in females has been increasing, while in Podkarpackie Voivodship there is very slight increase. The aim of the work is to explore model-based assessment of dynamics of cancer incidence and to analyze the causes of changes in the incidence of laryngeal cancer in females in Podkarpackie Voivodship in the years 1990–2012, including lifestyle, socio-economic situation, and making comparisons with the incidence trends in the country as a whole. For this purpose, a retrospective analysis of cases of laryngeal cancer in Podkarpackie Voivodship in the years 1990–2012 has been performed. Data have been obtained from the publication of the Department of Epidemiology of Podkarpackie Center of Oncology in Rzeszow and the Centre of the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology in Warsaw. Dynamics of cancer incidences derived from raw data is misleading. Therefore, to analyze the dynamics of the phenomenon three regression models have been used to remove random disturbance: ARX(1), SVR and Poisson regression model. The models have been compared based on standard statistics. In Podkarpackie the model-based absolute number of cases per year in females increased slightly between 1990–2012. In Poland, the model-based absolute number of cases in females increased over 30% in the last two decades in the years 1990–2012. The percentage share of cases of laryngeal cancer in females among all malignant cancers decreased by 0,5% to 0,4% in the years 1990–2012. The average age of the incidence for females increased from 55,6 years in 1989 to 65,4 in 2010. Dynamics analysis based on raw data solely may produce misleading results in opposition to a model based approach. A model-based approach seems to be relevant especially for the ill-behaved time series for such a number of cancer incidences.

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Keywords: cancers in females, laryngeal cancer, epidemiology, regression models, forecasting methods
JEL: I12, I15, C53

Mieczysław Kowerski

Review of
Andrzej Miszczuk (ed.)
Wyzwania rozwojowe pogranicza polsko-ukraińskiego

(article in English)
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