cover vol. 15 no. 2

Abstracts

Jacek Łaszek, Krzysztof Olszewski, Joanna Waszczuk

Regional Diversification of Saturation of the Housing Stock.
Poland against the Background of Europe

(article in English)
The aim of the article is to present the differences in saturation of the housing stock and its availability in Poland as well as in European Union countries and its influence on house prices and the economy. Regions which are characterized by a housing shortage will be separated. The analysis takes into account the differences in the level of wealth of the inhabitants and the scale of urbanization of individual states. The implications of social and economic imperfections in the functioning of the housing market, and in particular the price volatility of housing, have also been addressed. In addition, the quantitative and qualitative differences in the housing stock, which reduce the effective stock of available housing, are highlighted. In the case of Poland, only in Warsaw and Łódź does housing saturation correspond to that of the “old” EU. This article is divided into 5 parts. After an introduction to the subject, the second section deals with the issues of structural, long-term imbalances of demand and supply in the European housing market and its consequences. In the third section, the housing situation in the EU is presented. In the fourth part, the regional diversification in the housing stock in Poland is discussed. Section five consists of conclusions and a summary of the analysis.

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Keywords: housing demand, housing supply, regionalization of the housing situation, urbanization
JEL: M2, O18, R31

Jacek Łaszek, Robert Leszczyński, Krzysztof Olszewski

The Development of Residential and Commercial Real Estate,
and Economic Development in Polish Voivodships

(article in English)
The article presents the development of residential and commercial real estate in Poland and its 16 voivodships. This is closely linked to the economic development of the regions. The first part shows how the stock of this real estate grew on a national scale and how their values changed. The second part analyzes the change in the stock of residential and commercial real estate (office and commercial property) in particular voivodships. Dependencies are noted. The residential areas developed in a similar manner in different voivodships, with supply increasing with a delay of about two years after economic growth. This can be explained by the fact that when the economic situation of households improves, they want to improve their housing situation. On the other hand, the development of commercial space is accompanied by economic development with a one-year delay. Taking into account that the process of physical construction takes about 2 years, this implies the existence of a strong endogeneity between employment in the service or retail sectors and income growth. This endogeneity acts as feedback (revenue growth is an increase in surface area, which in turn generates income), so the cause and effect have slight time delays. The development of commercial real estate in individual voivodships intensified in different periods. This is probably connected with the inflow of foreign capital, which first came to Warsaw and the Warsaw agglomeration, then to large centers (Trójmiasto, Poznań) and only with some delay to other voivodships.

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Keywords: residential real estate, commercial real estate, development of regions
JEL: R31, R33

Piotr Maleszyk, Joanna Szafran

Warehouse Market in Poland and in Lublin:
Conditions, Tendencies and Development Prospects

(article in English)
The aim of the analysis was to identify the features and development trends of the warehouse market in Lublin against the background of regional and domestic markets in Poland, and, subsequently, to assess the market’s development prospects and its role in strengthening the economic development of the City of Lublin. Valuable data on the supply and demand side of the warehouse market in Lublin has been collected for the purpose of the article. The analysis of the data on warehouse market development, in Lublin as well as and in regional and domestic markets in Poland in 2015 and 2016, confirmed the market’s solid growth. The prospects of the warehouse market in Lublin are very promising, owing to such factors as: supply of a highly qualified labor force, relatively low labor costs, the improvement of transport infrastructure, the development of the Special Economic Zone Euro-Park Mielec Lublin Subzone, and, last but not least, the effective strategy of attracting investors pursued by the Department of Strategy and Investor Relations of the City Office in Lublin.

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Keywords: warehouse market, investment attractiveness, economic development
JEL: O18, O29, R33

Rafał Fornal, Artur Myna

The Development of Residential Areas on the Example of Łuków:
Reurbanization and Suburbanization

(article in English)
In planning documents, extensive land for housing is generally designed in the outskirts of cities. Suburbanization results in social costs and high costs of provision of technical and social infrastructure. The aim of the work is to develop and present a method of designating residential areas in such a way as to reduce the social and economic costs of spatial development of cities, improve spatial order and achieve long-term social benefits. In the example of Łuków, a vision of spatial development of a city was proposed by its reurbanization. New housing zones were designated near kindergartens, primary schools and basic health care facilities so that residents could reach them on foot. Maintaining the human scale of residential areas will limit traffic and its negative externalities. Areas that should not be used as land for housing construction were indicated to preserve ecological order. The change in spatial development of cities, from suburbanization to reurbanization, requires the pursuit of urban policy at all levels of public authority through the use of legal, planning, investment, financial, fiscal, property management, information and participation instruments.

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Keywords: urban sprawl, external benefits, land for housing, reurbanization
JEL: R21, R53

Agnieszka Rochmińska

Shopping Centers as Elements of the Functional and Spatial Structures of Cities. Location, Impact, Change Tendencies, Development Perspectives

(article in English)
The appearance of large-surface complexes has led to the creation of new trade, service and entertainment centers in cities; these complexes have an impact on their surroundings. Due to the large scale of the phenomenon, it is important to determine the zones and nature of this influence, discuss the problem of the relationship between a shopping center and a city, and the tendencies and perspectives of development of shopping centers. A shopping center competes with its home city for the attractive urban and suburban areas and the dominating role, especially in terms of a trade, service and public space. On the other hand, it coexists with the city by releasing/regaining lands that have been degraded and contributes to improvements in transport. The development of shopping centers throughout the world occurs on a quantitative level — with varying dynamics, but still their number increases, and, importantly, on a qualitative level — since their new forms with altered offers emerge. Changes observed should be noteworthy to all Polish policy-makers when making well-thought-out decisions regarding locations. Local authorities need to realize that the permits they issue influence more than the changes in the functional and spatial structure of a city or commune.

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Keywords: shopping center, impact, coexistence, rivalry, functional and spatial city structure
JEL: A1

Agnieszka Wójcik

Decisions by Listed Residential Property Developers
on Entering the Market Segment of Commercial Real Estate

(article in English)
The subject matter of this article are the decisions of listed residential developers to expand their operations into the segment of commercial real estate. The subject is presented both in terms of quantity (the number of entrances, dynamics) and in the context of motivation (the reasons for diversification of the commercial segment). The aim of this article is to verify the hypothesis concerning the domination of financial and profitability motivations (marketwise) in this process. The research conducted on a sample of 118 annual reports (for the years 2010–2015), published by listed companies of the WIG-DEVELOPERS segment, became the basis for the formulation of the conclusions.

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Keywords: commercial property, investment property, residential property, International Accounting Standards, International Financial Reporting Standards
JEL: G39, M41, R39

Waldemar A. Gorzym-Wilkowski

Spatial Planning as a Tool for Sustainable Development. Polish Realities

(article in English)
Sustainable development is currently the basic philosophy of shaping socio-economic development. It seeks to ensure that the improvement of living conditions and development of the economy are reconciled and the proper conditions for the functioning of the natural environment are maintained. The achievement of such objectives requires the use of numerous and varied instruments that include spatial planning whose goals are to protect and harmonize various ways of using geographic spatial resources. The role of spatial planning as an instrument for sustainable development is appreciated in international and Polish theoretical literature. Polish legislation also states, to an increasing extent, that the need for sustainable development should be regarded as the basis of spatial development. However, the reality is that the consecutive Polish spatial planning systems have created mechanisms that have aggravated spatial conflicts, including the excessive and extensive use of space. It has resulted from the privileged position given by consecutive legal solutions to a certain category of space users at the expense of other stakeholders and the natural environment. Therefore, the effective use of spatial planning to ensure sustainable development requires the creation of a new system of planning that balances the interests of various users of space.

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Keywords: sustainable development, spatial planning, Polish legislation
JEL: O01, Q21

Anna Polska

Function of Centers of Activity in the Shaping of Public Spaces in Lublin

(article in English)
The article presents relations occurring between the structure of city centers and that of public spaces in Lublin. It examines the problem of polycentricism of urban areas, relations between centers, and those between centers and their vicinity. It also analyses the structure of public spaces, its continuity, legibility, and its basic elements, particularly in terms of their morphology and quality of space arrangement. Results of comparative analysis of both urban structures are presented.

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Keywords: polycentric city, city centers, public space
JEL: R42, R52, R53

Dagmara Kociuba

Regional Innovation Strategy — from Design to Implementation.
Lubelskie Voivodship Case Study

(article in English)
The objective of the article is to present the process of designing and implementing Regional Research and Innovation Strategy for Smart Specialisation (RIS3). The paper is composed of two parts. The first part presents the idea of Smart specialization and its implementation in the current programming period, as well as the legal basis, premises, and assumptions of development of RIS3. In the second part, in the context of endogenic potentials, competitive advantages, and level of competitiveness of the region, the process of development of Regional Innovation Strategy for the Lubelskie Voivodship 2020 is presented in practice from the stage of identification of the areas of regional smart specialization in the entrepreneurial discovery process, through defining goals, priorities, and directions of measures and determination of the implementation assumptions, to the specification of financing sources. In the context of financing, the assumptions of the strategy were confronted with the provisions of the Regional Operational Programme of the Lubelskie Voivodship 2014–2020. This permitted drawing conclusions regarding financing pro-innovation measures on the regional level. In comparison to the assumptions of Regional Innovation Strategy for the Lubelskie Voivodship 2020 a considerable increase of resources in the scope of the Priority Axis 3 aiming at the improvement of competitiveness of SMEs was recorded. The cognitive value of the article is the presentation, in a broader context, of the methodology of development of RIS3 of the Lubelskie Voivodship, and translation of provisions of the strategy into specific measures in the financial sphere.

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Keywords: Regional Innovation Strategy (RIS3), Regional Smart Specializations, entrepreneurial discovery process, Cohesion Policy 2014–2020, Regional Operational Programme, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: R11, R51, R58, O38

Anna H. Sawicka

Marketing Approaches in Planning of the Compact City

(article in English)
The paper presents an attempt at assessment of marketing values of the structure of the compact city in the context of current tendencies in the development of cities and self-governmental activities. Inward urban development involves the accumulation of many urban factors and possibilities of solving the existing spatial problems. The objective is to search for complex urban planning solutions permitting the coexistence of common benefits. The features of the functional spatial structure of a compact city were analyzed in terms of the marketing value of urban space. The objective of the article is to verify the potential marketing value of the compact city, i.e. its offer. The comparative analysis of the definition, targets, attributes, tools, and products of the idea of the compact city and urban marketing leads to the ability of distinguishing potential opportunities in the process of spatial planning and urban design. The result is the countercheck of impact factors on the value of urban space as marketing products, the distinction of potential products at every stage of the planning process, and the attempt to include marketing approaches in urban planning. The research showed that the that evident relations between spatial planning and urban marketing offer possibilities of integration of both areas and achievement of quantifiable advantages.

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Keywords: compact city, urban planning, urban marketing, urban products
JEL: M38, O18

Anna Polska, Jan Polski

Urban Marketing of Small Cities

(article in English)
In the politics of the regional and local development much less attention is devoting itself to small cities compared with large urban agglomerations. However a territorial cohesion of regions is seriously dependent on the amount and the level of development of small cities. Justifying the need of marketing assisting of the development of these economic individuals is the purpose of this article. The practice of the planning and the marketing management is poorly popularized especially in regions of Eastern Poland. In this article authors are stressing the need of assisting attraction of small cities towards basic groups, in it of residents, diverse companies, institutions and social organizations as well as visitors. The small cities are in the regions the specific „pumping stations” of the production, services, capital and information from the larger centers to one’s back. On the example of the poorly urbanized Lubelskie Voivodship it is possible to state that the net of cities is too rare. Low urban planning standards are characteristic of small cities. The urban planning marketing can be the direction of the improvement of the social, economic and spatial situation of such regions as the Lubelskie Voivodship. Amongst this tools a main role will be playing the improvement in the standards of the technical and social infrastructure and comprehensive preparing the new investment grounds for the settlement and the market business activity. The improvement in the corporate culture of local governments in cooperation with all sorts partners on the local and regional level will also be needed.

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Keywords: small cities, urban planning marketing, territorial cohesion
JEL: R42, R52, R53

Anna Ćwiąkała-Małys, Paweł Łagowski

Academic Advancement Efficiency Measurement in Polish Universities
Including a Division into Voivodships

(article in English)
The aim of this article is an attempt to measure the efficiency of academic advancement in a regional conceptualization (division according to voivodships) in Polish higher education. In making this attempt a non-parametric DEA method has been used introducing three models: doctoral, doctoral-supplemental, and post-doctoral. Knowledge concerning academic advancement efficiency is significant in developing the economy of particular regions. On the other hand, the results may lead to knowledge, models and tools transfer from regions with higher levels of efficiency to those with low levels of efficiency (convergence efficiency).

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Keywords: higher education, academic advancement, efficiency evaluation, non-parametric DEA method
JEL: I21, I23