cover vol. 15 no. 4


Anna Krakowiak-Bal, Urszula Ziemiańczyk

Factors Influencing the Level of Regional Innovation — 
Qualitative Comparative Analysis

(article in English)
Innovation is a highly complicated and ambiguous phenomenon. It is also a key element of the competitiveness of companies, regions and nations. The aim of this study is to identify the conditions that most affect regional innovation. This research combines a group of indicators that define some tangible factors of regional development with level of innovation performance. The pathways to facilitate a region’s higher innovativeness are presented. For this purpose, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis is adopted. The analysis was performed for two different groups of regions: Innovative Leaders and Modest Innovators (according to the Regional Innovation Scoreboard). The main findings indicate that there is no single condition that improves innovative performance. It is always a combination of several variables. Having higher GDP, increasing employment in science and technology sectors, improving internet access and taking care of higher education of the population, regional innovativeness will grow. Social conditions such as inhabitants’ age do not show significant impact on regional innovation compared with other factors.

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Keywords: regional innovation, qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), modest innovators, innovation leaders
JEL: O10, O31, P48, R15

Marek Szajt

Knowledge Intensive-Based Sectors and Patent Activity — 
Attempt to Define Relationships in Statistical Terms

Innovation of economy is considered as key to its development. More and more frequent are the studies whose authors try to determine the main determinants of this innovation. In this article, the potential of knowledge intensive-based sectors (KIS) is also used in addition to the most commonly used: R&D personnel, researchers, gross expenditures on R&D (GERD) and human resources on science and technology (HRST). This potential, measured by employment in this sector, is strongly linked — as proven in the studies — to patent activity as a innovation measure. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between KIS and patent activity against other factors. The study included data at NUTS 1 and NUTS 2 levels. Data for 28 European Union countries and disaggregated 265 regions from 1999 to 2013 were used. Data — from Eurostat — have been subjected to statistical analysis using correlation, concentration, spatial location. Patent activity was used as a measure of innovation activity. The results have confirmed the key importance of human resources in knowledge-based sectors for increasing patent activity in the high technology sector.

Keywords: patent activity, knowledge intensive-based sectors, high technology
JEL: O34, O57, C01

Kazimierz Górka, Marcin Łuszczyk

Two-Speed Europe. Political Declarations or Economic Facts

Not only in Poland, but also throughout Europe, the reform of the European Union is being actively discussed. Among the proposed solutions there is the division of the member states into a group of states supporting further integration and the remaining ones, which tend to weaken the existing relations. According to the authors, Two-speed Europe already exists, and Poland, despite pro-European declarations of politicians, is more and more clearly outside the mainstream. The return to the group of European leaders calls for economic reforms to ensure stable growth in the long run.

Keywords: public finance, economic policy, European integration
JEL: E60, F36

Janusz Wielki, Inessa Sytnik, Bogdan Sytnik

Doing Business Online as the Key Factor of Regional Entrepreneurship Development — Modern Business Models and Development Trends

The study analyzes the spheres and level of online business development based on the identification of types of Internet business models and the analysis of statistical data.The purpose of this research is to determine the areas of influence of online business on the development of regional entrepreneurship. The paper uses a set of methods used in economics and management (i.e., systemic method and statistical analysis). It is concluded that the use of web technology increases the efficiency of business operations and therefore online business is the key direction of the development of regional entrepreneurship. It has been proven that all branches of the national economy can be referred to the field of online business, and the rapid development of Internet business is possible through the use of online technologies in the area of communication, marketing and distribution. An Internet Business Development Index (IBDI) has been developed, which has allowed to group the EU countries by degrees of online business development and proves the interdependence between the level of online business activity as well as the country's development within particular region.

Keywords: regional entrepreneurship, internet business, level of development, internet technologies
JEL: M21, R11, R58

Aldona Migała-Warchoł, Marek Sobolewski

The Influence of the Economy Innovativeness Level on the Standard of Living of Inhabitants of the European Union Countries

In the year 2000 in the Lisbon Strategy the European Union has tried to “decode” innovation, which was to be the main panacea for the economic and social crises of the 21st century. However, the new “Europe 2020” Strategy has relinquished the emphasis on “innovation for innovation,” trying to link the modernization of the economy to the social effects. In this context, it seems reasonable to examine the dependence of the selected measures of living standards of inhabitants on the level of economic innovation within the European Union. This is the main purpose of this article. The analysis included data based on the innovation rates of the economies of the EU Member States in 2015 and selected characteristics reflecting some aspects of the living standards of the population over the same period. The calculations also included a breakdown of the geopolitical situation before 1989, because despite the over 25 years, the level of development of post-communist states is still lower than that of the other European countries. The basic statistical method, which was used to analyze data is the Spearman rank correlation. From the obtained results we can draw conclusions with at most the average correlation between the innovation rates and the level of living of the EU citizens. The analyzed relationships were clearly weaker in the post-communist countries.

Keywords: innovation, European Union, standard of living
JEL: I30, O30

Aleksandra Zygmunt, Vojtěch Malátek

A Comparative Analysis of Research and Development Activities
in Poland and the Czech Republic in the Years 2006–2014

Contemporary economies and regions face the necessity to adaptation to changes in the environment. In this respect, an important role plays innovation, with R&D activities as a key determinant of maintaining and enhancing competitive advantage. The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of research and development activities in Poland and the Czech Republic. At first, it was made considerations about the importance of innovation in maintaining and enhancing the competitiveness of economies and regions. In this respect, the special emphasis was put on R&D activities. Next, on the base on time series analysis, selected aspects of R&D activities in Poland and the Czech Republic in the years 2006–2014 were compared. In analyses information from the European Statistical Office were used. The results of the research indicate a relatively high dissonance between Poland and the Czech Republic in terms of the analyzed variables. Compared to Poland, the Czech economy stands out with a significantly higher adjustment of R&D activities. The added value of the article is to highlight the diversity of research and development activities between EU countries with a similar level of innovation. The key value of the article is also the underlining of the impact of R&D activities on the competitiveness of economies and regions.

Keywords: R&D activities, Poland, Czech Republic
JEL: O30, O52, R11

Andrzej Graczyk

Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Polish Regional Policy

The aim of the article is to assess the most important factors for the development of renewable energy as the basis for shaping regional policy in Poland. The EU policy aims to increase the share of renewable energy sources. In Poland, the development of renewable energy sources has been stopped. This is due to the state policy. The costs of default on the share of these sources in final energy consumption will be higher than the cost of adapting to the objectives set for Poland by 2030. The development of renewable energy sources can be an important factor for the development of distributed energy production, and in particular for Prosumers. It can contribute to the development of regions. However, it requires an appropriate support system. The government's Strategies for Responsible Development announced in February 2017 adopted a model for the further development of centralized power, based on carbon sources. Support for renewable sources will be limited to energy clusters, energy co-operatives, and sources with stable production characteristics, but with high production costs. Since state policy does not foresee adequate support for the development of renewable energy, the responsibility for this development should be taken by the regions.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, costs, regional policy
JEL: Q42, Q56, R11

Robert Tomanek

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Areas
by Means of Free Fare Public Transport

Urban development, especially metropolitan development, creates barriers to mobility. In particular, it is necessary to sustain mobility with low carbon transport subsystems. Sustainable mobility requires a systematic approach and the use of different instruments. One is the price of public transport services, including the keenly discussed proposal of introducing free public transport in the cities. In Poland, the intention of introducing free public transport is reported more and more by the authorities of subsequent cities, justifying this desire to limit car traffic and thus to balance mobility. However, the effects of such decisions are multidirectional and long-term, while the arguments justifying the effectiveness of free urban transport in balancing mobility are not unambiguously confirmed by scientific research.

Keywords: public transport, sustainable mobility, free fare public transport
JEL: O18, R4

Łukasz Mach

The Idea of Sharing Economy in the Area of Short-Term Housing Rental

The principal goal of the conducted studies was to identify the new type of service offered in the market of short-time housing rental, which has been launched by the supply-holders who render their private housing resources available to general public. The idea of co-sharing the private housing resources, by writing into the philosophy of sharing economy, undoubtedly influences the revaluation of principles of economy within the studied sphere. This impact results, among others, in an increase in entrepreneurship-related activity through a dynamic quantitative growth in the number of entities in the rental market as well as in provision of innovative services by subjects developing their business activity in this market. The studies which were carried out have allowed to make parametrization such features as: the price of rental, attributes of the resources designed for rental, the level of obtained reductions for renting. The studies were conducted with the use of data related to the housing rental on offer, which are available from the Airbnb databases for the 16 capital cities of Polish voivodships.

Keywords: short-term housing rental, sharing economy, housing resources
JEL: L85, R3

Sabina Klosa, Katarzyna Widera

The Diversity of the Regions by Level of Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The aim of the article is to analyze the diversity of Polish regions in terms of innovation and entrepreneurship. In the selection of diagnostic variables, indicators included in the Regional Innovation Index from the European Commission's report were used. The Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS) data were used for the study. Using the multidimensional analysis method, the indicator of innovation and entrepreneurship for the studied objects was calculated. The study covered the years 2012 and 2014. The regions of Poland were divided into groups of similarities due to the indicator being studied.

Keywords: innovation, entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Scoreboard, Hellwig’s method
JEL: C1, C10, R58

Mariusz Zieliński

Changes in the Level of Long-Term Unemployment
in Poland in the Regional Perspective

The aim of the article is to analyze changes in the level and structure of long-term unemployment in Poland in the regional perspective in the years 2005–2015. The structure of unemployment according to the duration of unemployment is important in the context of the diminishing (due to demographic processes) labor supply, the increasing share of long-term unemployment makes it difficult to shift the unemployed to employees, which may constitute a development barrier for the economy. The hypothesis in the article is that the decrease in unemployment is accompanied by an increase in the share of long-term unemployment and a deterioration of its structure, in the form of increased participation of people with low education and in the non-mobile age. The article uses descriptive statistics based on the index method, as well as the analysis of the correlation between GDP growth, total unemployment and long-term unemployment. The data published by the Central Statistical Office in Statistical Yearbooks of the Regions-Poland was used for the analysis. The results of the study allowed a positive verification of the hypothesis of an increase in the share of long-term unemployment and a deterioration of its structure in the form of an increase in the proportion of people in the non-mobile age. Part of the hypothesis about the deterioration of the structure of long-term unemployment in the form of increased participation of people with low education was not confirmed.

Keywords: long-term unemployment, long-term unemployment structure, regional labor market, hysteresis effect
JEL: E24, J11, J22, J64, J70, R23

Joanna Szafran

Blended Projects — Blending Public-Private Partnership and EU Funds
to Local and Regional Development Projects

Public-private partnership (PPP) is developing dynamically in Poland, in response to the growing investment needs of primarily local and regional authorities, which face limitations of know-how, budget constrains and the provision of own contribution of projects co-financed from the EU budget. Its further development is fostered by changes in EU and national regulation for 2014–2020, which promote the implementation of PPP projects co-financed from the European funds, initiatives and institutions — the so-called blended project. The purpose of the publication is to show the specifics of such projects and their significance in the PPP market, in the context of their wider range of application in the current perspective of financing national and regional operational programs. An analysis of the sources of EU and national law, as well as the quantitative and structural analysis of the PPP market and blended projects, allowed to present model solutions, indication of advantages and barriers to the implementation of such projects by local authorities. Thanks to funding from the ERDF and the Cohesion Fund, the blended projects are distinguished by the high value of contracts concluded in the IT, waste management, energy and regeneration sectors which are, apart from transport and healthcare, preferred direction of the EU assistance.

Keywords: public-private partnership, blended project, European Structural and Investment Funds
JEL: H7, H44, H54

Danuta Szwajca

Involvement in Local Development as a Tool for Building
the Corporate Reputation

Reputation is now one of the company's most valued assets, which is the source of its value and long-term competitive advantage. In recent years, the reputation of a company as a socially responsible organization is of particular importance. One of the important areas of this responsibility is to participate in local development through various ways of activities and cooperation with representatives of local communities. The aim of the article is to identify forms of involvement of the business sphere in the region development in the context of building corporate reputation with particular emphasis on the good practices of companies operating on the Polish market. To achieve this goal the following methods were used: query literature and analysis of test results of selected research centers.

Keywords: corporate reputation, regional development, local communities
JEL: L31, M14, O18

Barbara Kryk

Cooperation of Local Governments with Non-Governmental Organizations
in the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship

In the new paradigm of development and territorial management, cooperation with NGOs is important, as they see local development as a factor. It is worth to know what local authorities think about this, so the aim of this article is to evaluate the cooperation of local government units with non-governmental organizations in the context of the contemporary paradigm of development and territorial management on the example of the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodship. Literature, survey and deduction methods were used in the study. Research has allowed a synthetic assessment of the current situation in the surveyed area.

Keywords: development paradigm, local governments, non-governmental organizations, cooperation
JEL: R59

Adam Przybyłowski, Katarzyna Królikowska

Innovative Centers — Pomorskie Region Case Study

At present innovation is a very important element of modern economy that is developing thanks to investment in research and development and also on the basis of technology transfer and commercialization of knowledge. Currently there are more and more institutions in Poland aimed at supporting entrepreneurs in pursuit of innovation. The purpose of the publication is to show the innovation centers on the example of institutions operating in the Tri-City (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Sopot). The hypothesis that these centers stimulate the innovative activities of entrepreneurs and business initiates has been confirmed. The method used in the work was survey and a research tool — questionnaire survey. The results show that the most important factor is the convenient location and the possibility of establishing new, valuable business contacts. Such favorable and noticeable opinions among the staff of the centers prove that they fulfill their role and are able to stimulate the Polish economy, becoming more and more competitive thanks to the development of science and technology.

Keywords: innovations, Tri-City agglomeration (Gdańsk, Gdynia, Sopot), innovative centers, research survey
JEL: O43

Marzena Szewczuk-Stępień, Agnieszka Walewska

A Comparative Analysis of Research and Development Activities
in Poland and the Czech Republic in the Years 2006–2014

Finding an efficient way to build a lasting competitive edge is one of the most demanding tasks that entrepreneurs face these days. This study makes an attempt at finding an answer to the question whether research and development activities and focus on innovation implementation may offer quantifiable results for companies on the way to acquire a competitive market position. A thesis was put forward that R&D&I activities allow for effective construction of competitive edge of companies and attempts were made proving it. An analysis and evaluation of external determinants was made (the so-called climate for implementation — current situation determined on the basis of characteristics of statistical data in the area of research and development activities in Poland, selected available tools in the form of EU subsidies for innovations and R&D&I activities) and analysis of a case based on a case study of a selected company. The recapitulation includes remarks made after the performance of the analyses in question.

Keywords: economy competitiveness, research and development, innovation in companies
JEL: O30, O52, R11

Karina Bedrunka, Krzysztof Malik

Health Projects in the Opolskie Voivodship. Methods of Implementation

Regional policy is largely dependent on demographic processes. Decisions on planned actions (including the implementation of investments and the organization of public services by local government units), must be undertaken locally and take into account population changes. First and foremost, the new health challenges should be addressed by health policies which introduce systemic health promotion and disease prevention programmes addressed to the widest possible audience. Applying an integrated approach into the regional policy is conducive to the implementation of multi-faceted, comprehensively designed activities including the area of health. In the Regional Operational Programmes for 2014–2020, these activities are implemented under the Regional Health Programmes. The aim of the research is to demonstrate how health projects are set up and implemented under the Regional Health Programmes in the Opolskie Voivodship. On practical ground the research aims at formulating recommendations on how projects should be designed and implemented. The research also provides solutions for the set up and launch of projects in order to implement regional health programmes effectively.

Keywords: demographic awareness, EU projects, regional health programs
JEL: I12, J11, H51

Łukasz Dymek

The Determinants of Investment Decisions in the Area of Sport and Recreation
on the Example of the Głuchołazy Commune

Investment activities in the field of sport and recreation are very socially desirable. However, activities in this area are characterized by high infrastructure costs and significant maintenance costs. In financial terms, the implementation of such projects is unprofitable. On the other hand, from a socio-economic point of view, municipalities with adequate facilities for sports and recreation are characterized by a better life quality for residents. The article presents an analysis of the determinants that influence the decision-making process by communities in terms of implementation of a project in the field of sports and recreation infrastructure. It shows the complexity of the problems that a decision maker has to deal with while constructing such objects.

Keywords: local development, investments, commune, decision-making
JEL: H74

Anna Jasińska-Biliczak, Hana Stverkova, Ilona Winiarczyk

Foreign Investment of Hi-Tech Enterprises as the Source of
Knowledge Transfer to the Region — Opolskie Voivodship Case Study

(article in English)
Article’s aim is the critical analysis of the literature and case study of the knowledge transfer issue into Opolskie Voivodship by foreign investment of the hi-tech sector. To illustrate such undertaken problem the role and a place of knowledge transfer and high technologies sector as the factor having an impact on development of the region was discussed. Enterprises — foreign investors — are the source of the knowledge for human capital of the region, and because of that for enterprises of the region. There also will be pointed the practical example from Opolskie Voivodship, at the base of knowledge transfer by hi-tech enterprise into Opolskie Voivodship. After such stated analysis it is possible to state that foreign investment of hi-tech sector and knowledge transfer to region being their consequence, constitute actual field of scientific interests. As the pro-innovative action it is simultaneously the field of the mutual cooperation of hi-tech sector and regional economy. Interactions of these subjects are important not only from the point of view of mutual benefits, such as knowledge transfer by the side of regional economy and economic benefits, including those connected to regional human capital, by the side of hi-tech sector. Thus foreign investment of that sector can be pointed as the source of innovation, know-how and knowledge transfer, but also as the engines of social and economic changes in the region.

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Keywords: foreign investment, knowledge transfer, high technology sector, regional economy
JEL: F63, L26, O31

Jan Andreasik

The OHS Ontology Based on the Polish Standard PN-N-18001

In the paper, the design of the OHS ontology based on the Polish Standard PN-N-18001 (the OHS management system) is shown. The ontology is defined using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Diagrams of classes, object properties, and data properties are presented, respectively. Proper visualizations of the ontology as well as examples of definitions of classes and relations are depicted.

Keywords: OHS, OWL, ontology, Polish Standard

Małgorzata Adamska

Studies of the Demand for Knowledge-Based Services in Enterprises of
the Opolskie Voivodship

The article presents and discusses the results of the survey conducted by the computer assisted telephone interview system, that was the part of the expertise devoted to establishment and functioning of the Competence Center (CK) at Opole University of Technology. The experience gained from active cooperation with enterprises of the region, indicates the problem of insufficient matching of the offer prepared by the research sector units to the needs of the regional economy. The aim of the article is to discuss selected issues of research, the results of which are an important source of knowledge for the process of creating an effective cooperation in the area of knowledge transfer between science-business. This represents the enterprises ability to compete in modern economic space, using the know-how available in the business environment.

Keywords: enterprise, knowledge management, research services, cooperation

Mieczysław Kowerski, Jarosław Bielak

Fifty Issues of Regional Barometer

(article in English)
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