cover vol. 16 no. 2


Barbara Konecka-Szydłowska

Trajectories of the Development of Small Towns in Terms of the Urban Resilience Concept — the Demographic Dimension

(article in English)
The paper aims to determine the trajectories of the development of small towns in terms of the urban resilience concept in a demographic dimension. It makes it possible to answer the question of how towns adapt to contemporary socio-economic processes. The subject of the research is a set of small towns in Wielkopolskie Voivodship. The period of the study involves the years 2003–2016 which enables us to grasp the changeability of development conditions related to transformation, globalization, and integration processes as well as the economic crisis. The research is conducted with the use of indexes of change dynamics with a fixed basis. Analysis provides for a diversified size structure of small towns, their location and administrative functions performed. In 2003–2016 the trajectories of the resilience of Wielkopolskie small towns were diversified. The basic criterion influencing their course is the size structure of a given center and its location, whereas administrative functions are of minor significance. The smallest towns (of a mixed type — i.e., roller-coster with elements of avant-garde type) seem the most resistant to external disturbances, have a higher degree of resilience and thus adapt better to contemporary socio-economic changes in the demographic dimension. An important external disturbance which clearly modifies the values of the selected indexes of resilience and vulnerability dynamics as well as the course of the trajectories of the development of towns with a diversified size structure was an economic crisis strengthened by globalization and integration processes.

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Keywords: urban resilience, demographic dimension, trajectories of development, small towns, Wielkopolskie Voivodship
JEL: J00, J11, R00, R23

Magdalena Wojarska, Roman Kisiel, Emil Walendzik

Small Towns as Beneficiaries of EU Funds
(the Example of Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship)

(article in English)
The objective of this study was to achieve a multidimensional description of the consumption of EU funds by small towns in Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodship, and to identify the role of this source of funding in the development policy of these localities. The aim was pursued based on secondary data originating from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office and from the database of the Ministry of Investment and Economic Development (the EU Grants Map), as well as primary data collected during a survey study conducted among representatives of small towns and urban-rural municipalities which contain a small town in their limits (in total 38 units). The percentage of returned and correctly completed questionnaires was 44,74%. The empirical material gathered during the study proves that the budgets of municipalities in Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship in 2006–2016 received PLN 3 244,24 million in the form of grants from the EU and other foreign support programmes, and the share of this sum absorbed by small towns and urban-rural municipalities was 25,91% (PLN 840,44 million), most of which was allocated to urban-rural municipalities (86,61%). Results of the U Mann-Whitney test showed that the distribution of the funds acquired by small towns and urban-rural municipalities with small towns in their limits, calculated per capita, in Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship differed significantly from the sums of money invested by other administrative units of this type in Poland. The research also indicates that the EU funds played an important role in the development policy of small towns, and an opportunity to apply for EU grants had a strong influence on their investment plans.

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Keywords: small town, EU funds, statistical nonparametric tests, Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship
JEL: H79, R19, R58

Michał Dolata

Socio-Economic Determinants of the Development of Small Cities
in the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region

(article in English)
The identification of socio-economic determinants of the development of small urban centers functioning in the conditions of transformation and metropolization of space constitutes a significant research problem in the area of urban geography. In this study, the problem is discussed in the context of East Germany. The aim of the article is to characterize the most important contemporary determinants and factors influencing the development of small cities in the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. This characterization is based on analyses involving over 100 cities and refers to the spatial and population development of individual urban centers in the years 1990–2015. The research also used statistical material and spatial data sets published by official German national and regional institutions. In the course of the analyses, it was established that the conditions determining the development of small urban communes within the research area are very complex. This results from the overlapping of transformation determinants and factors universal for the whole area and the determinants resulting from the metropolization processes, whose nature and impact diversify in space.

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Keywords: small cities, socio-economic development, metropolitan region, transformation, East Germany, Brandenburg, Berlin
JEL: R11, R58

Kamil Kotliński

EU Cohesion at sub-Regional Level. The Case of the sub-Regions of Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship

(article in English)
Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship is one of the poorest EU regions. The region is internally diverse at the sub-regional level. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of cohesion policy in the sub-regions (NUTS 3 ) of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship: Ełcki, Elbląski, and Olsztyński. The basis of assessment that was adopted was the change of position relative to all EU-sub-regions. Changes of economy structure are studied using the changes of the shares of sectors — NACE Rev. 2 in creating the Gross Value Added. The source of data is Eurostat. The results are ambiguous. Although some indicators (employment and GDP per capita) have improved, sigma convergence does not occur and the positions of those sub-regions do not show any significant changes, only Olsztyński sub-region noted small improvement in the ranking. Very small progress in the ranking means that the pace of catching up is too slow. Despite this, effects of membership in the European Union for employment and growth is positively assessed.

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Keywords: convergence, sub-regions at NUTS 3 level, cohesion policy
JEL: F15, R1

Alicja K. Zawadzka

Accessibility of Polish and Nordic Cittaslow Towns

(article in English)
The main objective of this article is to indicate transport accessibility (according to two criteria: fly&60 and 6×60×60) and information accessibility (on the Internet) of all Polish (28 ) and all Nordic (9 ) towns — members of the International Network of Cities Where Living is Good. The research was conducted using non-reactive methods: content analysis and desk research. The analysis has shown that the fly&60 criterion is met by eight Cittaslow towns (seven Polish and one Nordic), and the 6×60×60 criterion — by five towns (four Polish and one Nordic), which confirms the thesis on the peripheral nature of Cittaslow cities, which in fact may be perceived as an attracting factor. Their location, away from frequently used routes, may attract (some of them already do so) tourists seeking alternative forms of leisure, following a growing global trend of sustainable tourism. The level of accessibility to online information on the Cittaslow towns is varied, but rather low.

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Keywords: small towns, Cittaslow, accessibility of small towns, peripherality
JEL: R40, R41, R50

Maria Kola-Bezka

Revitalization Programs in Rural Areas in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The aim of the article is to evaluate revitalization programs of rural communes in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship and to formulate critical remarks with respect to the revitalization programming rules currently in force. The method of analyzing source documents (i.e., revitalization programs, was used to achieve this objective). The subject of the analyzes were: revitalization models, ways of designating degraded areas and areas of revitalization as well as financial instruments and forms and methods of social participation provided for in the revitalization process. The results of the study indicate that the principles of revitalization programming, which may be effective in cities, do not always correspond to the conditions prevailing in rural areas, which is mainly due to the fact that these areas are usually mostly affected by a crisis caused by widespread occurrence of structural problems.

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Keywords: revitalization, revitalization program, Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship, communes, rural areas
JEL: H76, R58, R59

Natalia Świdyńska

The Attractiveness for Investments of Urban Municipalities
in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship

(article in English)
This study has been carried out in order to identify determinants of potential investment attractiveness of urban municipalities. To this end, urban municipalities in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship in Poland were submitted to analysis. The data, as of 2015, were obtained from the Bank of Local Data maintained by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS ). For each of the five microclimates which are expected to shape the level of potential investment attractiveness, a synthetic index that manifests a degree of the development of a given microclimate was calculated. The calculations relied on Hellwig’s development pattern method. A stepwise regression method was applied to identify the microclimates that most strongly influence potential investment attractiveness. The application of the above methods led to the construction of an equation which expresses the potential investment attractiveness of urban municipalities. The equation implicated that the level of potential investment attractiveness of an urban municipality depended significantly on the market of human resources, technical infrastructure, administration and market microclimates. The subsequent step was to determine the prospective development of the market microclimate. To achieve this purpose, a logistic function was applied. The results suggest that the level of development of market microclimate in most analyzed urban municipalities will be declining over the following six years.

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Keywords: investment attractiveness, urban municipalities, Hellwig’s development pattern method
JEL: O18, O43, R58

Magdalena Szczepańska

From the Garden-City to the Idea of Sustainable Development:
a Case Study of the Garden Tri-City Near Warsaw

(article in English)
The conception of a garden-city assumes creation of an organized unit in functional and spatial terms ensuring harmonious relations among economic growth, protection of the natural environment and catering to different kinds of social needs. Thus, this former city model is deeply rooted in the contemporary idea of sustainable development. The article aims to describe a research procedure that would allow a determination of the degree of implementation of the garden-city concept in relation to contemporary cities. Moreover, the paper presents a comparative analysis of selected garden-cities in the context of the sustainable development idea. Historical, social, environmental and economic factors were analyzed as well as the functional-spatial structure and strategic documents of the cities. The entities investigated were shown to be the Polish interpretation of the garden-city idea and local rules include requirements concerning the principles of sustainable development.

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Keywords: garden-city, spatial planning, sustainable development, spatial order, city model
JEL: A13, N90, O13, O21, Q01, R00

Waldemar Kozłowski

Ratio Analysis of Infrastructure Investments: a Case Study of
the Municipalities and Communes of the Olsztyn County

(article in English)
A fundamental aspect of infrastructure investments made by local authorities is the evaluation of their effectiveness. Considering their public character, infrastructural investments require more methodological sophistication to allow an assessment of a number of areas which have been ignored in previous analyses. This paper introduces a model for evaluating infrastructural investments based on select socio-economic ratios. The results of the research can be used by local authorities during investment planning and evaluation.

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Keywords: infrastructure investments, ratio analysis, municipality
JEL: O18, P43, R53, R58

Andrzej Miszczuk

Identification of Conditions of the Spatial Economy in Cross-Border Regions

(article in English)
The objective of the article is the analysis of conditions of conducting coherent spatial management specific to cross-border regions. The most important are geopolitical conditions, determining the character and functions of the national border. Socio-economic and spatial processes occurring in the conditions of both closed and open borders are also of importance. The institutional-legal distance occurring between entities located on both sides of the border may prove to be a serious hindrance in the conducting of coherent spatial policy in cross-border regions.

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Keywords: spatial economy, cross-border region, geopolitical conditions, legal-institutional conditions, socio-economic conditions
JEL: R58

Wojciech Janicki

Ordering Illegal Migration Terminology: the Migration Legality Cube

(article in English)
In the subject literature, the terms “illegal migration” and “illegal migrant” encompass many categories of processes, people, and phenomena that have little to do with migration as a movement of people in space. This includes, most prominently, unauthorized employment and unauthorized residence in the receiving country. Both of these circumstances may be related to prior illegal migration, but do not necessarily have to be. The physical process of migration may have taken place entirely in accordance with the law. This is the starting point for the reconsideration of the standard migration terminology, as proposed in this paper. As three basic dimensions of illegality associated to date with migration analysis may focus on one person in as many as eight different combinations, this would require us to describe a single person using three different terms, which would quickly turn out to be inefficient. For practical reasons, the most convenient term is illegal migrant. Given its vague nature, however, the paper proposes to supplement this using the classification presented in the Migration Legality Cube encompassing eight types, depending on which group of migrants is in focus. This will make it easier for analysts and laymen alike to find their way in the ocean of uncertainty in which current debates on migration drift — and often founder.

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Keywords: migration, legality, classification, migration legality cube
JEL: F2, K37

Andrzej Jakubowski

Asymmetry of Economic Development of Cross-Border Areas in the Context of Perception of Near-Border Location

(article in English)
The objective of the study is the investigation of the dependency between the asymmetry of economic development of cross-border regions in the European Union and the perception of near-border location as an “opportunity” or “obstacle.” For this purpose, an index of relative asymmetry of economic development was developed (DI) based on the GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS). The variability in the scope of perception of cross-border location as an “opportunity” or “obstacle” by the population of near-border areas was determined based on results of the Flash Eurobarometer 422. The basic statistical method applied in the study was the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The obtained results provide a basis to state that the level of disproportions in the economic development of near-border regions (asymmetry of economic development) is linked to the perception of near-border location.

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Keywords: asymmetry, borderlands, regional development
JEL: R11

Tomasz Komornicki, Karol Kowalczyk

Role of Rail in Passenger Border Traffic between Poland and Ukraine — 
a Dynamic Approach

(article in English)
Changes in the functions of Polish borders at the turn of the 20th and 21st century resulted in a reorientation of transport connections with countries of the former Soviet Union. One of the consequences of the phenomenon are considerable transformations in the scope of degree of use of rail transport in cross-border passenger traffic. The objective of the article is the dynamic assessment of the importance of railways in passenger traffic between Poland and Ukraine in the years 1990–2016 (including limited data for 2018), with consideration of the infrastructural and organizational factors. The analyses employed data on traffic of persons and vehicles on railway and road border crossings. They provided the basis for the determination of changes in the position of rail towards other modes of cross-border transport. The second source is Network Train Timetable (in Polish: Sieciowy Rozkład Jazdy Pociągów), used for the preparation of maps of connections functioning in selected time intervals. The analyzed period was characterized by a continuous decrease in the importance of rail in bilateral passenger traffic. It proved completely inflexible towards systemic and geopolitical transformations and intermodal competition of bus transport, and from 2013 also air transport. The spatial layout of rail connections suggested initial de-concentration involving several border crossings, and then concentration on two main lines. The vast general increase in traffic that occurred in recent years in the Ukrainian direction constitutes a chance for increasing the role of rail transport in a situation of overload of road border crossings.

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Keywords: rail transport, passenger border traffic, intermodal competition, border infrastructure
JEL: R4, R41, R42

Jolanta Jóźwik, Grażyna Gawrońska

Changes in the Level of Socio-Economic Development of Communes
in the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The paper presents an attempt of determination of changes in the level of socio-economic development of communes in the Lubelskie Voivodship. The variability of socio-economic development for 2005 and 2015 was determined based on the measure of development proposed by Hellwig. The research covered 193 communes, including 166 rural communes and 27 urban-rural communes. The source material was data for the local level (i.e., communes) obtained from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office. The research showed that the Lubelskie Voivodship is characterized by relatively high internal socio-economic variability. High level of development was usually obtained for urban-rural communes and communes neighboring on urban communes. The lowest level was determined for communes characterized by peripheral location. The large majority of communes represented a moderate level of socio-economic development. An increase in the general level of socio-economic development was observed in 2015 in comparison to 2005 in the majority of communes of the Lubelskie Voivodship.

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Keywords: level of socio-economic development, the Hellwig development pattern method, Lubelskie Voivodship, rural and urban-rural communes
JEL: O18, R10

Monika Wesołowska

Polarization of Rural Settlements in the Lubelskie Voivodship as a Result of Population Changes

(article in English)
Rural settlements, as a basic element of space, are dynamic structures subject to changes due to various factors determining the conditions of their development and functional transformations. Certain directions of changes occurring in rural areas are characteristic of each historical period. They are particularly evident in demographic and socio-cultural processes, in rural economies, and living conditions of residents. This article analyses population changes in rural areas of the Lubelskie Voivodship in the years 1950–2011. Strong polarization of settlements was observed. Considering the current trends, the author constructed two forecasts (short- and long-term) of transformations in the structure of rural settlements.

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Keywords: Lubelskie Voivodship, population forecast, changes in the rural settlement network
JEL: J11, R15

Urszula Bronisz

Local Specialization of Cities of the Lubelskie Voivodship

(article in English)
The article presents an attempt to determine the economic specialization of cities of the Lubelskie Voivodship. High level market specialization can result from the dominant function of a city related to the socio-economic activities of the citizenship. The study employs Florence’s location quotient, also known as the local specialization index. The analysis was carried out on the basis of Statistics Poland data. The main source of information was the REGON register database (National Official Register of National Economy Entities). The survey proved that the vast majority of cities located in the Lubelskie Voivodship have been characterized by a relatively low level of local specialization. This may indicate that the economic structure of the survey units is quite diverse. In the case of smaller centers, lack of the dominant function can result from a problem with proper identification factors constituting the economic base of a given city, and therefore suggest small chances for development.

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Keywords: local specialization, economic development of cities, Florence’s location quotient, Lubelskie Voivodship
JEL: P25, R11

Viktoriya Pantyley, Wioletta Kałamucka, Krzysztof Łoboda

Inequalities of the Development of Polish-Ukrainian Transborder Regions

(article in English)
The purpose of the article is the estimation of the level of development of Polish-Ukrainian transborder regions, provision of an outline of problems and perspectives of their development, and of possible ways of solving such problems. The hypothesis states that the border line, on both the Ukrainian and Polish sides, is a powerful negative factor in the development of border regions. It is particularly visible on the Ukrainian side of the border. In order to delimitate the research area, the criterion of its location on counties (administration areas are named: in Poland — “poviat,” in Ukraine — “raion”) frame was applied. Therefore, for the transborder region, we consider administrative units located directly near the border: 9 counties of the Lubelskie and Podkarpackie voivodships for the Polish side, and 10 counties of 3 transborder regions in Ukraine (Lviv, Volyn, and Zakarpattia). For complex analysis of its development, we selected 9 diagnostic variables of sociodemographic, environmental, and economic development. In order to evaluate the level of development of transborder region, the synthetic index of its development was elaborated (Perkal index). The analysis of the spatial distribution of selected variables showed similarities in the development of Polish-Ukrainian transborder regions by environmental aspect, but significant differences in economic and sociodemographic depictions. In the context of the Perkal index, 4 classes of development of administrative units were elaborated. The worst situation regarding development was observed in the Volodymyr Volynskyi County with a level of development of -0,58. The best situation was observed in the case of the Bieszczadzki County with a level of development of 0,50. According to the authors, greater integration of Ukraine with the European Union, and active policy for activation of transborder regions could contribute to a reduction of differences in development of Polish-Ukrainian border regions.

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Keywords: sustainable development, transborder region, Polish-Ukrainian transborder regions, Perkal index
JEL: R11, Q01