cover vol. 16 no. 4


Kazimierz Górka, Marcin Łuszczyk, Agnieszka Thier

The Impact of a Circular Economy on Sustainable Development

(article in English)
The issue of the exhaustibility and limited of natural resources has been noticed, among others, as a result of intensive economic development and civilization progress. In the second half of the 20th the emission of industrial and municipal pollutants, mainly as a result of burning fossil fuels, also became a serious problem. The article presents the essence and manifestations of the economy in a closed circuit and its impact on shaping sustainable socio-economic development, as well as the analysis of the possibilities of implementing these principles in business practice and in everyday life. According to the authors, managing in a closed circulation appears to be the highest stage of civilization development. Closing the so-called the loop and the economic cycle is becoming real in many areas as a result of extending the life cycle of products, the use of an ever-wider range of waste as secondary raw materials — instead of primary raw materials, the use of renewable energy sources, rationalization of water and forest management, etc.

Full text »

Keywords: sustainable development, natural resources, circular economy
JEL: Q01, Q30, Q50

Tadeusz Pindór

Technological Entrepreneurship as a Factor of Development and Restructuring of the Global Economy

(article in English)
The main problem dealt with in the publication is the role of technological entrepreneurship in stimulating the processes of development and restructuring of the global economy. The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze the factors of development and restructuring of the global economy against the background of the challenges and circumstances arising out of compliance with the criteria of sustainable and inclusive development. The paper provides an overview based on the analysis of the world literature, including the Polish contribution, as well as on the experience gained thus far by the leaders in the civilizational transformations of the last decades. The processes illustrating the emergence of a new economic map of the world were based on information concerning the ranking of the technology readiness level — i.e., the capability of an economy to absorb technologies increasing productivity of production factors. This parameter is currently the key element of the economic competitiveness of the individual states. The sources of this information were global reports issued by the OECD, various UN agencies, the World Economic Forum, as well as independent international analytical institutions. The common access to products created as a result of applying disruptive technologies implies a large number of civilizational threats of a hitherto unknown scale. It is advisable to undertake formative actions addressed to users of new devices concerning responsible use of the achievements of inventors and manufacturers of new products.

Full text »

Keywords: technological entrepreneurship, disruptive technologies, technology readiness, development and restructuring of the economy
JEL: O10, O32

Maria Bernat, Sylwia Jasek

Barriers to Innovation Activity. The Macro-, Mezo- and Microeconomic Approach on the Example of Poland

(article in English)
Innovations are gaining more and more attention in studies and research mainly due to their role in the socio-economic development of countries. However, many countries and regions face real problems in creation, diffusion and absorption of innovation. The aim of the paper is to explore the barriers and bottlenecks which may influence and limit innovative activity across the country, regions and companies. The level of innovation in an economy is the result of many factors. For this reason, the article indicates not only the economic barriers which may appear at various stages of the innovation process, but also includes the cultural, behavioral, sociological and anthropological background. As a result, the various taxonomies of barriers are presented and evaluated. Particular attention is paid to the comprehensive interactions between various actors and institutions in the innovation process. Thus, the article focuses on and highlights the regional aspect which encourages the need of cooperation between businesses and institutions in order to understand the negative determinants blocking innovation.

Full text »

Keywords: innovation, innovation barriers, economic and noneconomic conditions

Krzysztof Łobos, Mirosława Szewczyk

Entrepreneurial Orientation, Growth and Development of SMEs.
Empirical Results from Poland and the Czech Republic

(article in English)
Based on individual-level data from a cross-sectional sample of small and medium enterprises located in Poland and the Czech Republic we performed an analysis of the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on SMEs’ growth and development. The hypotheses outlined in the study were tested by using structural equation modeling. The study results revealed that overall there was a strong measure of agreement among SMEs from Poland and the Czech Republic. SMEs in Poland and the Czech Republic have a similar approach to pro-activeness, innovativeness and risk-taking. However, Polish firms are less likely to act aggressively. The results of the structural equation modeling indicate entrepreneurial orientation affects SME growth and development. In general, when enterprises seek to innovate and to outpace competitors they are rewarded for their efforts.

Full text »

Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises, entrepreneurial orientation, growth, development, structural equation modeling
JEL: D22, L25, L26

Mariusz Zieliński

Increased Employment Rates and the Nature of the Economic Growth
in Poland’s Voivodships

(article in English)
The purpose of the article is to study the impact of basic production factors (level of employment and value of fixed assets) on the economic growth rate in different regions of Poland. The hypothesis presented in the article is that in the process of economic growth, the human factor (level of employment) plays a greater role than the fixed assets. The hypothesis was verified using the data published by the Central Statistical Office in the Statistical Yearbooks of the Regions for the years 2000 and 2015. The results of the study confirm the validity of the formulated hypothesis. Also, the author of the article made the effort to identify the voivodships characterized by extensive and intensive economic growth.

Full text »

Keywords: economic growth, extensive and intensive growth, employment, added value, fixed assets
JEL: E22, E24, R23

Marcin Łuszczyk, Agnieszka Janeta

An Impact of Business Cycles on Revenues and Expenditures of Communes
in Poland

(article in English)
One of the basic functions of the state is mitigation of fluctuations in the business cycle. Increased activity in the period of economic slowdown should be demonstrated both by the state budget and local government units. However, the effectiveness of state intervention depends on the condition of the public finance sector. Therefore, in conditions of economic recovery, the state not only should balance its budget, but also should try to pay off at least part of the previously incurred liabilities. According to the authors, the permanent lack of financial discipline of the state, in the near future, will contribute to the budgetary imbalance of communes and will cause serious disruptions in the functioning of local self-governments.

Full text »

Keywords: business cycle, budget revenues, budget expenditures, commune, local government
JEL: E32, H72

Sabina Kubiciel-Lodzińska, Bogdan Ruszczak

Labor Market Segmentation as an Important Factor in Research of Labor Immigration. Comparative Analysis Based on the Opolskie Voivodship Empirical Findings

(article in English)
The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the need of taking into account the existence of dual labor markets in the majority of developed countries when analyzing research results on labor immigration. The countries most affected with this duality are the ones where immigration is still on the increase; amongst others, Central and Eastern European countries. Selected qualitative and quantitative research methods were implemented in the study. The data source was a structured questionnaire interview conducted in 2007–2008, among 91 employers and the comparison research carried out again in 2014–2015 with 263 participating entrepreneurs. In accordance with the dual labor market theory, the employers were divided into those who offered employment in the primary or the secondary labor market. The research carried out in the Opolskie Voivodship, Poland showed that those employing a foreign labor force were driven by different reasons in the primary or the secondary sector of the labor market. It was also determined that taking into account the segmentation of the labor market in analyses of results of research on labor immigration positively affected their interpretation and provided more precise conclusions.

Full text »

Keywords: labor market, immigration, market segmentation, entrepreneurs
JEL: C83, J23, J61

Janusz Wielki, Inessa Sytnik, Artem Stopochkin

Structural Disparities in the Polish Economy: Regional Development

(article in English)
The purpose of this study is to identify structural imbalances in the regional development of the Polish economy on the basis of the level and specifics of regional development analysis. In order to achieve this goal, the data from the Polish Central Statistics Office describing the labor market, and the demographic and economic situation in Poland have been utilized. The analysis period is 2005–2016. The heterogeneity of regional development generates a number of economic, social and political issues, the solution of which requires the formation of a fundamentally new sustainable development policy concept. Such a concept is supposed to be based on an integrated approach that takes into account the specifics of development each individual region in the country.

Full text »

Keywords: structural disparities, regional development, polish economy, modern economic system
JEL: J21, O18, R58

Małgorzata Adamska

Application of Marketing Communication Tools in Small and Medium Enterprises. Results of Regional Research

(article in English)
This paper aims to investigate the application of different types of communications forms and tools in the context of client capital management and development of the client lifetime value in the sector of small and medium enterprises. The research method was a questionnaire survey using computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI), on a group of 383 small and medium-sized enterprises from the Opolskie Voivodship. This research illustrates the use of diverse forms and tools by diverse members of the SME sector. More importantly, this research prepares conclusions for future development of communication as a main stimulator of increasing client lifetime value. The findings show that the small and medium enterprises in Opolskie Voivodship are aware of the need to use a variety of tools to communicate with clients. The tools are diverse and have a different degree of contact intensity, which effectively contributes to the involvement of clients in the relationship with the company’s offer. In the future the SME sector should develop and diversify channels of communication with client capital. For modern enterprises, the most important thing will be constant development of the client’s lifetime value.

Full text »

Keywords: marketing communication, consumer behavior, client capital management, client value, SME

Barbara Kos, Robert Tomanek

Development of Logistics Studies as an Example of Adapting Higher Education to the Needs of Knowledge-Based Economy

(article in English)
The development of the modern economy depends on the efficiency of complex global logistics chains. Logistics employs modern management and telematic technologies, whereas knowledge management is the basis for growth of efficiency and effectiveness of logistics chains. A particular role is played by the universities which educate the future workforce for the Transport-Forwarding-Logistics (TFL) sector. Based on the data from the POLON system, it may be concluded that logistics education is common, especially at the economic and technical universities. According to the Polish statistical data, the graduates find jobs very quickly, whereas their remunerations are higher than the average. The activity of universities in respect of research and education for the purpose of logistics is a factor in the growth of competitiveness of this economy sector. However, it is necessary to improve the study programs, using knowledge of practitioners and results of scientific research.

Full text »

Keywords: education in the field of logistics, labour market, employability of graduates
JEL: A23, I25, J24, L91

Adam Przybyłowski, Jagoda Rahn

Innovations Shaping Smart Mobility. Tri-City Case Study

(article in English)
The 2020s are predicted to be a decade of transformation for urban mobility. Innovations in the transport sector continue to introduce new opportunities to enhance travel experiences in the cities. This is facilitated by business models that offer a range of new mobility services that provide flexible options to meet travel needs. Good mobility for citizens and businesses greatly increases the attractiveness and competitiveness of cities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the innovations shaping smart mobility in modern agglomerations taking as a case study Tri-City (Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot). A survey in the form of a questionnaire was created to study how smart mobility looks in the eyes of the local community. The study was conducted among a randomly selected group of respondents. The results provide some interesting conclusions. The Tri-City community is not fully aware of the fact that there are a lot of smart mobility solutions available within the area. The paper is based on the available literature sources and statistical data, as well as on the survey research study.

Full text »

Keywords: innovations, smart & sustainable mobility, agglomerations
JEL: O43

Krzysztof Malik, Anna Jasińska-Biliczak, Mariusz Grochowski

Internal and External Costs in Sustainable Development of the Healthcare System in Poland. Case Study of the John Paul II Specialist Hospital in Głuchołazy

(article in English)
The article’s goal is to study internal and external cost as part of the sustainable development paradigm. To illustrate such a problem the role and a scope of presented costs in the health care system are discussed. The practical example from Opolskie Voivodship — the John Paul II Specialist Hospital in Głuchołazy — is presented. For achievement of this aim a literature review is conducted from the scope of health-care economics and its sustainable development as well as internal and external costs (desk research). An analysis of data (data analysis) is performed on the example of the specific hospital (case study). After such analysis it is possible to state that it is necessary to have knowledge regarding the occurrence of diseases in the population and the total (including external) values of social and economic costs of untreated diseases. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to, first of all, implement educational programs. This also applies to general medical practitioners, because, as practice shows, patients are often diagnosed at the stages of disease when effective treatment is nearly impossible.

Full text »

Keywords: sustainable development, internal costs, external costs, healthcare system, costs in hospital, health care system economics
JEL: zrównoważony rozwój, koszty wewnętrzne, koszty zewnętrzne, system ochrony zdrowia, koszty hospitalizacji, ekonomia systemu ochrony zdrowia

Łukasz Mach

The Assessment of Development Potential for Voivodship Capital Cities
in the Aspect of Local Housing Markets

(article in English)
The purpose of this research is to try to identify development potential for Polish voivodship capital cities in the area of the housing market, with particular consideration of the number of apartments/flats delivered. The Shift Share Analysis (SSA) method has been used to identify development potential of the analyzed cities. The space-time analysis of flats delivered has been carried out in three market aspects regarding flats planned for sale or rent, flats built individually, and other flats (including: condominiums, council flats, company flats and social housing).

Full text »

Keywords: housing market, apartments/flats delivered, development potential, the shift-share analysis, regional development
JEL: rynek nieruchomości mieszkaniowych, mieszkania oddane do użytkowania, potencjał rozwoju, analiza przesunięć udziałów, rozwój regionalny

Małgorzata Burchard-Dziubińska, Tomasz Jakubiec

The Role of Green Public Procurement in the Implementation of
Sustainable Development. City of Łódź Case Study

(article in English)
The article concerns the practical use of green public procurement to implement sustainable development. The use of this type of instrument in the investment activity of the city in the years 2007–2017 is presented on the example of the City of Łódź. Documents related to the implementation of public procurement were analyzed. The research was subordinated to the verification of the hypothesis that the implementation of urban investments using green public procurement and ecological criteria is an effective mechanism for the implementation of sustainable development by the territorial self-government. The results confirmed that green public procurement contributes to the improvement of the natural environment and the quality of life of residents in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

Full text »

Keywords: green public procurement, sustainable development, City of Łódź, Poland
JEL: E60, H57, Q01

Jan Andreasik

Knowledge Management Models. State of the Art

(article in English)
In this article knowledge management models are classified into the following groups: 1. Resource models. 1.1. Holistic models. 1.2. Pyramidal models. 2.Process models. 2.1. Knowledge value chain models. 2.2. Branch models of organizational processes. 2.3. Spiral models. 3. Knowledge creation models. 4. Semantic models. As the summary the operationalization of knowledge management models is presented.

Full text »

Keywords: knowledge management models, resource models, process models, knowledge creation models, semantic models, operationalization of knowledge management models
JEL: M15, O32

Kamila Boguszewska, Natalia Przesmycka

Spatial Planning in Environmentally Valuable Areas in the Context of
Public Participation on the Example of Czechów Hills in Lublin

(article in English)
The area of “Górki Czechowskie” is in the north-western part of Lublin. Originally it was used as a military training field. In the Study of Directives on the Spatial Development of Lublin(which has been currently displayed for public viewing) it is supposed to be a green area surrounded by multi-family housing with services. Currently, this study sparks numerous controversies and protests of local residents and non-governmental organizations. In Lublin, there is currently a discussion on the appropriateness and applicability of the solutions included in the document. The article presents the problems of the issue and the role of resident participation in the process of spatial planning.

Full text »

Keywords: Lublin, Górki Czechowskie, spatial planning, social participation
JEL: R14, R52, R58

Jarosław Bielak, Mieczysław Kowerski

Dynamics of Economic Development Measure.
Fiftieth Anniversary of Publication of the Article by Prof. Zdzisław Hellwig

(article in English)
2018 marked the 50th anniversary of publication in Przegląd Statystyczny journal of an article entitled: “Procedure of evaluating high level manpower data and typology of countries by means of the taxonomic method” written by prof. Zdzisław Hellwig. This article is one of the most frequently quoted articles published in Przegląd Statystyczny and is one of the most often quoted articles in Polish economic literature. More importantly, the number of quotations has been growing recently. The pattern of economic development method developed in the article was the first proposal of a method of linear ordering in the area of economic research. The method is still used and has become an inspiration for many methodological studies concerning multidimensional comparative analysis written since the 1970s. Apart from drawing attention to the “phenomenon” of prof. Hellwig’s publication and, in particular, its impact on the development of economic research in Poland, the main purpose of the study is presentation of the complex procedure of a dynamic approach to measuring development which integrates the issue of selection of diagnostic variables and comparability of Hellwig’s development measures from different periods. The proposed procedure was illustrated with an analysis of the standard of living of residents of Polish voivodships (NUTS 2) in 2005–2016.

Full text »

Keywords: Hellwig’s pattern of economic development method, dynamic development measures, standard of living in Polish voivodships
JEL: C18, O11, R11